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  1. Carmassi C, Corsi M, Bertelloni CA, Carpita B, Gesi C, Pedrinelli V, Massimetti G, Peroni DG, Bonuccelli A, Orsini A, Dell'Osso L Mothers and fathers of children with epilepsy: gender differences in post-traumatic stress symptoms and correlations with mood spectrum symptoms. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2018 Jun 7; 14 :1371-1379 DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S158249 Epub. 2018 May 25 PubMed ID: 29872304

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-traumatic stress spectrum have been recently applied to understand the impact of life-threatening disease or injury in one's child; nevertheless, scant data are available on a particular chronic illness such as epilepsy whose phenotypic expression is seizures, which are acute, sudden, and unpredictable manifestations. Subjects with bipolar disorders or with mood spectrum symptoms demonstrated to be more vulnerable to develop PTSD in the aftermath of a trauma.

  2. Conversano C, Carmassi C, Bertelloni CA, Marchi L, Micheloni T, Carbone MG, Pagni G, Tagliarini C, Massimetti G, Bazzichi LM, Dell'Osso L Potentially traumatic events, PTSD and post-traumatic stress spectrum in patients with fibromyalgia. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.. 2018 May 11; Epub. 2018 Apr 24 PubMed ID: 29745889

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is defined as a severe, chronic, non-articular rheumatic condition characterised by widespread musculoskeletal pain, hyperalgesia and generalised tender points, in the absence of inflammatory or structural musculoskeletal abnormalities. Pain is the predominant symptom, allodynia and hyperalgesia are common signs. Extreme fatigue, impaired cognition and non-restorative sleeping difficulties coexist in addition to other somatic symptoms. Several studies suggest there is a meaningful relationship between FM and the psychological symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is a mental disorder that can develop after a person has been exposed to a traumatic event, characterised by a specific set of symptoms including re-experiencing of the event, avoidance and numbing and arousal. The present study investigates the impact of lifetime potentially traumatic events, including losses, and of post-traumatic stress symptoms on the severity of illness in patients with fibromyalgia (FM).

  3. Dell'Osso L, Conversano C, Corsi M, Bertelloni CA, Cremone IM, Carpita B, Carbone MG, Gesi C, Carmassi C Polysubstance and Behavioral Addictions in a Patient with Bipolar Disorder: Role of Lifetime Subthreshold Autism Spectrum. Case Rep Psychiatry. 2018 Apr 24; 2018 :1547975 DOI: 10.1155/2018/1547975 Epub. 2018 Feb 22 PubMed ID: 29682383

    This case report draws attention to the potential relevance of undetected autism spectrum symptoms in a bipolar patient with high work functioning showing a peculiar addictive profile with impulsive and antisocial behaviors. A 23-year-old man with a diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD) and Substance Use Disorder (SUD) was hospitalized at the Psychiatric Clinic of the University of Pisa for diuretics and -2 adrenergic agonist abuse in a remission phase of benzodiazepines and substance abuse. He reported a history of behavioral addictions in the framework of a global high work functioning with particular skills in computer science. When assessed for adult autism spectrum symptoms, despite not fulfilling a DSM-5 diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), he reported a score of 93/240 at the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale (RAADS-r) and of 88/160 at the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum), both indicative of ASD. We argue the possible role of adult subthreshold autism spectrum features, generally disregarded in adult psychiatry, in the peculiar addictive profile developed by this patient with BD that may deserve appropriate treatment.

  4. Dell'Osso L, Cremone IM, Carpita B, Fagiolini A, Massimetti G, Bossini L, Vita A, Barlati S, Carmassi C, Gesi C Correlates of autistic traits among patients with borderline personality disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2018 Mar 4; 83 :7-11 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2018.01.002 Epub. 2018 Jan 05 PubMed ID: 29500962

    Despite discrete autism-related dimensions, such as deficits in communication, empathy and mentalizing are likely to affect the development of personality and despite they actually frequently occur in borderline patients, no research has so far investigated the relationship between autistic traits and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The objective of this study is to investigate the clinical significance of autistic traits in subjects with BPD.

  5. Stasi C, Nisita C, Cortopassi S, Corretti G, Gambaccini D, De Bortoli N, Fani B, Simonetti N, Ricchiuti A, Dell'Osso L, Marchi S, Bellini M Subthreshold Psychiatric Psychopathology in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Can It Be the Bridge between Gastroenterology and Psychiatry? Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2017 Dec 8; 2017 :1953435 DOI: 10.1155/2017/1953435 Epub. 2017 Oct 30 PubMed ID: 29213280

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGDs) are multifactorial disorders of the gut-brain interaction. This study investigated the prevalence of Axis I and spectrum disorders in patients with FGD and established the link between FGDs and psychopathological dimensions.

  6. Dell'Osso L, Corsi M, Gesi C, Bertelloni CA, Massimetti G, Peroni D, Bonuccelli A, Orsini A, Carmassi C Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum) in parents of pediatric patients with epilepsy: Correlations with post-traumatic stress symptoms. Compr Psychiatry. 2018 Mar 18; 83 :25-30 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2018.02.004 Epub. 2018 Feb 12 PubMed ID: 29549876

    Increasing literature has shown the usefulness of a dimensional approach to mental disorders, particularly when exploring subjects exposed to traumatic experiences such as a severe illness in one's child. Recent evidence suggests an increased vulnerability in subjects with autism spectrum symptoms to develop post-traumatic stress symptoms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of adult autism subthreshold spectrum in a sample of parents of children with epilepsy and its impact on post-traumatic stress spectrum symptoms in the same study sample. Results revealed noteworthy correlations between post-traumatic stress symptoms and adult autism subthreshold spectrum (AdAS Spectrum) only in the subgroup of the fathers. In particular, were evidenced correlations between AdAS Spectrum domain of rumination and narrow interests and some TALS-SR nuclear domains: reaction to traumatic events, reexperiencing and arousal. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that subthreshold autistic features may influence the possible psychopathological reaction to trauma.

  7. Dell'Osso L, Carpita B, Gesi C, Cremone IM, Corsi M, Massimetti E, Muti D, Calderani E, Castellini G, Luciano M, Ricca V, Carmassi C, Maj M Subthreshold autism spectrum disorder in patients with eating disorders. Compr Psychiatry. 2017 Dec 22; 81 :66-72 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2017.11.007 Epub. 2017 Nov 28 PubMed ID: 29268154

    Increasingly data suggest a possible overlap between psychopathological manifestations of eating disorders (EDs) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of subthreshold autism spectrum symptoms, by means of a recently validated instrument, in a sample of participants with EDs, particularly comparing participants with or without binge eating behaviours.

  8. Miniati M, Benvenuti A, Bologna E, Maglio A, Cotugno B, Massimetti G, Calugi S, Mauri M, Dell'Osso L Mood spectrum comorbidity in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Eat Weight Disord. 2016 Oct 22; 23 :305-311 DOI: 10.1007/s40519-016-0333-1 Epub. 2016 Oct 20 PubMed ID: 27766498

    To investigate the presence of mood spectrum signs and symptoms in patients with anorexia nervosa, restricting subtype (AN-R) or bulimia nervosa (BN).

  9. Dell'Osso L, Abelli M, Carpita B, Pini S, Castellini G, Carmassi C, Ricca V Historical evolution of the concept of anorexia nervosa and relationships with orthorexia nervosa, autism, and obsessive-compulsive spectrum. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016 Jul 28; 12 :1651-60 DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S108912 Epub. 2016 Jul 07 PubMed ID: 27462158

    Eating disorders have been defined as "characterized by persistence disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food and that significantly impairs health or psychosocial functioning". The psychopathology of eating disorders changed across time under the influence of environmental factors, determining the emergence of new phenotypes. Some of these conditions are still under investigation and are not clearly identified as independent diagnostic entities. In this review, the historic evolution of the eating disorder concept up to the recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, has been evaluated. We also examined literature supporting the inclusion of new emergent eating behaviors within the eating disorder spectrum, and their relationship with anorexia, autism, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In particular, we focused on what is known about the symptoms, epidemiology, assessment, and diagnostic boundaries of a new problematic eating pattern called orthorexia nervosa that could be accepted as a new psychological syndrome, as emphasized by an increasing number of scientific articles in the last few years.

  10. Dell'Osso L, Gesi C, Massimetti E, Cremone IM, Barbuti M, Maccariello G, Moroni I, Barlati S, Castellini G, Luciano M, Bossini L, Rocchetti M, Signorelli M, Aguglia E, Fagiolini A, Politi P, Ricca V, Vita A, Carmassi C, Maj M Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum): Validation of a questionnaire investigating subthreshold autism spectrum. Compr Psychiatry. 2016 Dec 6; 73 :61-83 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2016.11.001 Epub. 2016 Nov 09 PubMed ID: 27918948

    Increasing literature has shown the usefulness of a dimensional approach to autism. The present study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum), a new questionnaire specifically tailored to assess subthreshold forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adulthood.

  11. Billeci L, Calderoni S, Conti E, Gesi C, Carmassi C, Dell'Osso L, Cioni G, Muratori F, Guzzetta A The Broad Autism (Endo)Phenotype: Neurostructural and Neurofunctional Correlates in Parents of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Front Neurosci. 2016 Aug 9; 10 :346 DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2016.00346 Epub. 2016 Jul 22 PubMed ID: 27499732

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a set of neurodevelopmental disorders with an early-onset and a strong genetic component in their pathogenesis. According to genetic and epidemiological data, ASD relatives present personality traits similar to, but not as severe as the defining features of ASD, which have been indicated as the "Broader Autism Phenotype" (BAP). BAP features seem to be more prevalent in first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD than in the general population. Characterizing brain profiles of relatives of autistic probands may help to understand ASD endophenotype. The aim of this review was to provide an up-to-date overview of research findings on the neurostructural and neurofunctional substrates in parents of individuals with ASD (pASD). The primary hypothesis was that, like for the behavioral profile, the pASD express an intermediate neurobiological pattern between ASD individuals and healthy controls. The 13 reviewed studies evaluated structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain volumes, chemical signals using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), task-related functional activation by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), or magnetoencephalography (MEG) in pASD.The studies showed that pASD are generally different from healthy controls at a structural and functional level despite often not behaviorally impaired. More atypicalities in neural patterns of pASD seem to be associated with higher scores at BAP assessment. Some of the observed atypicalities are the same of the ASD probands. In addition, the pattern of neural correlates in pASD resembles that of adult individuals with ASD, or it is specific, possibly due to a compensatory mechanism. Future studies should ideally include a group of pASD and HC with their ASD and non-ASD probands respectively. They should subgrouping the pASD according to the BAP scores, considering gender as a possible confounding factor, and correlating these scores to underlying brain structure and function. These types of studies may help to understand the genetic mechanisms involved in the various clinical dimension of ASD.

  12. Carmassi C, Gesi C, Simoncini M, Favilla L, Massimetti G, Olivieri MC, Conversano C, Santini M, Dell'Osso L DSM-5 PTSD and posttraumatic stress spectrum in Italian emergency personnel: correlations with work and social adjustment. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016 Mar 4; 12 :375-81 DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S97171 Epub. 2016 Feb 18 PubMed ID: 26937192

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) has recently recognized a particular risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among first responders (criterion A4), acknowledging emergency units as stressful places of employment. Little data is yet available on DSM-5 among emergency health operators. The aim of this study was to assess DSM-5 symptomatological PTSD and posttraumatic stress spectrum, as well as their impact on work and social functioning, in the emergency staff of a major university hospital in Italy. One hundred and ten subjects (doctors, nurses, and health-care assistants) were recruited at the Emergency Unit of the Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana (Italy) and assessed by the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) and Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). A 15.7% DSM-5 symptomatological PTSD prevalence rate was found. Nongraduated persons reported significantly higher TALS-SR Domain IV (reaction to loss or traumatic events) scores and a significantly higher proportion of individuals presenting at least one maladaptive behavior (TALS-SR Domain VII), with respect to graduate ones. Women reported significantly higher WSAS scores. Significant correlations emerged between PTSD symptoms and WSAS total scores among health-care assistants, nongraduates and women. Our results showed emergency workers to be at risk for posttraumatic stress spectrum and related work and social impairment, particularly among women and nongraduated subjects.

  13. Dell'Osso L, Luche RD, Gesi C, Moroni I, Carmassi C, Maj M From Asperger's to DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder and Beyond: A Subthreshold Autism Spectrum Model. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2016 Nov 22; 12 :120-131 DOI: 10.2174/1745017901612010120 Epub. 2016 Nov 03 PubMed ID: 27867417

    Growing interest has recently been devoted to partial forms of autism, lying at the diagnostic boundaries of those conditions previously diagnosed as Asperger's Disorder. This latter includes an important retrieval of the European classical psychopathological concepts of adult autism to which Hans Asperger referred in his work. Based on the review of Asperger's , from first descriptions through the DSM-IV Asperger's Disorder and up to the recent DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder, the paper aims to propose a Subthreshold Autism Spectrum Model that encompasses not only threshold-level manifestations but also mild/atypical symptoms, gender-specific features, behavioral manifestations and personality traits associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This model includes, but is not limited to, the so-called spanning across the general population that does not fully meet Autism Spectrum Disorder criteria. From this perspective, we propose a subthreshold autism as a unique psychological/behavioral model for research that could help to understand the neurodevelopmental trajectories leading from autistic traits to a broad range of mental disorders.

  14. Dell'Osso L, Abelli M, Pini S, Carpita B, Carlini M, Mengali F, Tognetti R, Rivetti F, Massimetti G The influence of gender on social anxiety spectrum symptoms in a sample of university students. Riv Psichiatr. 2016 Jan 19; 50 :295-301 DOI: 10.1708/2098.22688 PubMed ID: 26780203

    The aim of the study was to explore social anxiety spectrum gender differences, in a sample of university students.

  15. Gesi C, Carmassi C, Miniati M, Benvenuti A, Massimetti G, Dell'Osso L Psychotic spectrum symptoms across the lifespan are related to lifetime suicidality among 147 patients with bipolar I or major depressive disorder. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2016 Jun 23; 15 :15 DOI: 10.1186/s12991-016-0101-7 Epub. 2016 Jun 21 PubMed ID: 27330540

    Conflicting evidence exists about the relationship between psychotic symptoms and suicidality in mood disorders. We aimed to investigate the lifetime suicidality and its relationship with dimensions of the psychotic spectrum over the lifespan among subjects with bipolar I (BD I) or major depressive disorder (MDD).

  16. Ioannou M, Dellepiane M, Benvenuti A, Feloukatzis K, Skondra N, Dell'Osso L, Steingrímsson S Swedish Version of Mood Spectrum Self-Report Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties of Lifetime and Last-week Version. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2016 Jun 28; 12 :14-23 DOI: 10.2174/1745017901612010014 Epub. 2016 Mar 31 PubMed ID: 27346997

    Mood Spectrum Self Report (MOODS-SR) is an instrument that assesses mood spectrum symptomatology including subthreshold manifestations and temperamental features. There are different versions of the MOODS-SR for different time frames of symptom assessment: lifetime (MOODS-LT), last-month and last-week (MOODS-LW) versions.

  17. Dell'Osso L, Dalle Luche R, Maj M Adult autism spectrum as a transnosographic dimension. CNS Spectr. 2015 Sep 10; 21 :131-3 DOI: 10.1017/S1092852915000450 Epub. 2015 Sep 09 PubMed ID: 26349624
  18. Carmassi C, Stratta P, Calderani E, Bertelloni CA, Menichini M, Massimetti E, Rossi A, Dell'Osso L Impact of Mood Spectrum Spirituality and Mysticism Symptoms on Suicidality in Earthquake Survivors with PTSD. J Relig Health. 2015 Jun 27; 55 :641-9 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-015-0072-z PubMed ID: 26112609

    The aim of the present study was to explore the correlations between Spirituality/Mysticism/Psychoticism symptoms and suicidality in young adult survivors of the L'Aquila earthquake. The sample included 475 subjects recruited among high school seniors who had experienced the April 6, 2009, earthquake. Assessments included: Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report and Mood Spectrum-Self Report (MOODS-SR). Mysticism/Spirituality dimension and suicidality were evaluated by means of some specific items of the MOOD-SR. The Spirituality/Mysticism/Psychoticism MOODS-SR factor score was significantly higher among subjects with PTSD diagnosis with respect to those without. Similarly, subjects with suicidal ideation, as well as those who committed a suicide attempt, reported significantly higher scores than those without.

  19. Stratta P, Sanità P, Bonanni RL, de Cataldo S, Angelucci A, Rossi R, Origlia N, Domenici L, Carmassi C, Piccinni A, Dell'Osso L, Rossi A Clinical correlates of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor in post-traumatic stress disorder spectrum after a natural disaster. Psychiatry Res. 2016 Aug 2; 244 :165-70 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.07.019 Epub. 2016 Jul 12 PubMed ID: 27479108

    Clinical correlates of plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) have been investigated in a clinical population with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and healthy control subjects who survived to the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake. Twenty-six outpatients and 14 control subjects were recruited. Assessments included: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders Patient Version, Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) for post-traumatic spectrum symptoms. Thirteen patients were diagnosed as Full PTSD and 13 as Partial PTSD. The subjects with full-blown PTSD showed lower BDNF level than subjects with partial PTSD and controls. Different relationship patterns of BDNF with post-traumatic stress spectrum symptoms have been reported in the three samples. Our findings add more insight on the mechanisms regulating BDNF levels in response to stress and further proofs of the utility of the distinction of PTSD into full and partial categories.

  20. Carta MG, Norcini-Pala A, Moro MF, Balestrieri M, Caraci F, Dell'Osso L, Sciascio GD, Faravelli C, Hardoy MC, Aguglia E, Roncone R, Nardi AE, Drago F Does Mood Disorder Questionnaire identify sub-threshold bipolarity? Evidence studying worsening of quality of life. J Affect Disord. 2015 May 30; 183 :173-8 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.04.058 Epub. 2015 May 11 PubMed ID: 26021966

    It is debated whether the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) can generate false positives by screening other disorders as bipolar, or identify sub-threshold bipolarity. The aim is to verify if Quality of Life (QoL) impairment in MQD positives in the community is due to MDQ positivity itself, or to psychiatric diagnosis associated with MDQ positivity (supporting the former hypothesis).

  21. Dell'Osso L, Dalle Luche R, Cerliani C, Bertelloni CA, Gesi C, Carmassi C Unexpected subthreshold autism spectrum in a 25-year-old male stalker hospitalized for delusional disorder: a case report. Compr Psychiatry. 2015 Jun 3; 61 :10-4 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2015.04.003 Epub. 2015 Apr 14 PubMed ID: 26031384

    This paper highlights the clinical challenges faced when assessing patients with stalking behaviors with psychotic disorders, suggesting the need for an accurate assessment of adult autism spectrum symptoms. A 25-year-old man with a diagnosis of delusional disorder, erotomanic type, was hospitalized for acute psychotic symptoms occurred in the framework of a repeated stalking behavior towards his ex girlfriend. When assessed for adult autism spectrum symptoms upon an accurate clinical evaluation, he reported elevated scores in the mentalizing deficit and social anxiety domains by means of the 14 item Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale (RAADS-14). Authors discuss a possible role of adult (subthreshold) autism spectrum symptoms, generally disregarded in adult psychiatry, on the type of psychotic features and stalking behavior developed that may help for appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

  22. Liliana Dell'Osso, Riccardo Dalle Luche, Claudia Carmassi A New Perspective in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Which Role for Unrecognized Autism Spectrum? International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience 2015; :17:436-438
  23. Liliana Dell'Osso, Riccardo Dalle Luche, Mario Maj Adult autism spectrum as a transnosographic dimension CNS Spectrums, page 1 of 3. Cambridge University Press 2015;
  24. Dell'Osso L, Bazzichi L, Baroni S, Falaschi V, Conversano C, Carmassi C, Marazziti D The inflammatory hypothesis of mood spectrum broadened to fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.. 2015 Mar 19; 33 :S109-16 Epub. 2015 Mar 18 PubMed ID: 25786052

    The present paper aimed at reviewing literature data on the inflammatory hypothesis of mood spectrum, as well as the overlapping features with some chronic rheumatologic disorders, in particular fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.

  25. Benvenuti A, Miniati M, Callari A, Giorgi Mariani M, Mauri M, Dell'Osso L Mood Spectrum Model: Evidence reconsidered in the light of DSM-5. World J Psychiatry. 2015 Mar 28; 5 :126-37 DOI: 10.5498/wjp.v5.i1.126 PubMed ID: 25815262

    to investigate studies conducted with the Mood Spectrum Structured Interviews and Self-Report versions (SCI-MOODS and MOODS-SR).

  26. Carmassi C, Gesi C, Corsi M, Pergentini I, Cremone IM, Conversano C, Perugi G, Shear MK, Dell'Osso L Adult separation anxiety differentiates patients with complicated grief and/or major depression and is related to lifetime mood spectrum symptoms. Compr Psychiatry. 2015 Jan 18; 58 :45-9 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.11.012 Epub. 2014 Nov 14 PubMed ID: 25595519

    Increasing literature has been focused on complicated grief (CG) and its distinctiveness from other potentially loss related mental disorders such as major depression (MD). In this regard, symptoms of separation distress seem to play a key role. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical features of CG to those of MD and of CG+MD, with particular attention to separation anxiety.

  27. Dell'Osso L, Massimetti G, Conversano C, Bertelloni CA, Carta MG, Ricca V, Carmassi C Alterations in circadian/seasonal rhythms and vegetative functions are related to suicidality in DSM-5 PTSD. BMC Psychiatry. 2014 Dec 16; 14 :352 DOI: 10.1186/s12888-014-0352-2 Epub. 2014 Dec 12 PubMed ID: 25496184

    Alterations in rhythmicity and vegetative functions have been reported as correlates of suicidality, particularly in patients with mood disorders. No investigation has addressed their impact on patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Aim of the present study was to fulfill this gap.

  28. Dell'Osso L, Abelli M, Pini S, Carlini M, Carpita B, Macchi E, Gorrasi F, Mengali F, Tognetti R, Massimetti G Dimensional assessment of DSM-5 social anxiety symptoms among university students and its relationship with functional impairment. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014 Jul 31; 10 :1325-32 DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S59348 Epub. 2014 Jul 16 PubMed ID: 25075191

    Social anxiety disorder is a common condition often associated with severe impairment in educational career. The aim of this paper was to evaluate prevalence rates and correlates of mild, moderate, and severe forms of social anxiety spectrum in a large sample of university students. Overall, 717 university students were assessed with the Social Anxiety Spectrum Self-Report questionnaire. Using two cut-off scores, 61.4% of subjects were classified as low scorers, 10% as medium scorers, and 28.6% as high scorers. Both high and medium scorers reported fears related to social situations. Interpersonal sensitivity and specific phobias were more common among women with low scores. Childhood/adolescence social anxiety features were more common among males with medium scores. Behavioral inhibition was more common among males with high scores. Functional impairment was severe among high scorers and, to a lesser extent, among medium scorers. Social anxiety spectrum is largely represented among university students. Future studies should investigate whether sufferers of social phobia underachieve or end their professional objectives prematurely.

  29. Carmassi C, Stratta P, Massimetti G, Bertelloni CA, Conversano C, Cremone IM, Miccoli M, Baggiani A, Rossi A, Dell'Osso L New DSM-5 maladaptive symptoms in PTSD: gender differences and correlations with mood spectrum symptoms in a sample of high school students following survival of an earthquake. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2015 Feb 12; 13 :28 DOI: 10.1186/s12991-014-0028-9 Epub. 2014 Nov 18 PubMed ID: 25670961

    Gender differences in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates were confirmed across different DSM editions as well as the role of bipolar disorder (BD) comorbidity on prevalence and course, but little data is available upon new DSM-5 criteria, including maladaptive behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in DSM-5 PTSD in a sample of young adult earthquake survivors and the impact of lifetime mood spectrum comorbidity.

  30. Simoncini M, Miniati M, Vanelli F, Callari A, Vannucchi G, Mauri M, Dell'Osso L Lifetime autism spectrum features in a patient with a psychotic mixed episode who attempted suicide. Case Rep Psychiatry. 2014 Oct 29; 2014 :459524 DOI: 10.1155/2014/459524 Epub. 2014 Oct 01 PubMed ID: 25349762

    We present a case report of a young man who attempted suicide during a mixed episode with psychotic symptoms. The patient's history revealed the lifetime presence of signs and features belonging to the autism spectrum realm that had been completely overlooked. We believe that this case is representative of an important and barely researched topic: what happens to children with nondiagnosed and nontreated subthreshold forms of autism when they grow old. The issue of early recognition of autism spectrum signs and symptoms is discussed, raising questions on the diagnostic boundaries between autism and childhood onset psychotic spectrums among patients who subsequently develop a full-blown psychotic disorder.

  31. Carmassi C, Antonio Bertelloni C, Massimetti G, Miniati M, Stratta P, Rossi A, Dell Osso L Impact of DSM-5 PTSD and gender on impaired eating behaviors in 512 Italian earthquake survivors. Psychiatry Res. 2014 Dec 3; 225 :64-69 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2014.10.008 Epub. 2014 Oct 22 PubMed ID: 25454114

    Considerable comorbidity rates between Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and eating disorders have been recently reported, as well as increased obesity and underweight conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible associations between DSM-5 PTSD, gender and impaired eating habits in a sample of 512 Italian earthquake survivors evaluated by the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) and the Mood Spectrum-Self Report (MOODS-SR). Alterations in eating behaviors were assessed by means of four MOODS-SR items: n=150 (…there was no food that appealed to you or tasted good to you?), n=151 (…you constantly craved sweets or carbohydrates?), n=152 (…your appetite or weight decreased?), n=153 (…your appetite or weight increased?). In a Decision Tree procedure subjects with PTSD with respect to those without and, in the No-PTSD subgroup, females with respect to males, had a significantly higher ratio of at least one MOODS-SR eating behavior item (MOODS-SR EB). In the No-PTSD subgroup only, subjects with at least one MOODS-SR EB presented a significantly higher mean TALS-SR symptomatological domains total score with respect to those without MOODS-SR EB. In conclusion, alterations in eating behaviors were associated with PTSD after the L׳Aquila earthquake; among survivors without PTSD significant a correlation emerged between MOODS-SR EB and PTSD symptoms.

  32. Liliana Dell’Osso, Katherine M. Shear, Sara Gemignani, Corrado Manni, Benedetta Pocai, Claudia Carmassi Lo spettro del trauma e della perdita e il questionario TALS-SR Nóos 2014; DOI: 10.1722/1569.17077
  33. Mauro Mauri, Mario Miniati, Valeria Camilleri, Chiara Borri, Michela Giorgi Mariani, Agnese Ciberti, Liliana Dell’Osso Lo spettro anoressico-bulimico e il questionario ABS-SR Nóos 2014; DOI: 10.1722/1569.17075
  34. Antonella Benvenuti, Mario Miniati, Antonio Callari, Andrea Fagiolini, Liliana Dell’Osso Il concetto di spettro dell’umore e il Mood Spectrum Questionnaire Nóos 2014; DOI: 10.1722/1569.17073
  35. Mario Miniati, Antonio Callari, Antonella Benvenuti, Mario Savino, Susanna Banti, Mauro Mauri, Liliana Dell’Osso Lo spettro panico-agorafobico e il questionario PAS-SR Nóos 2014; DOI: 10.1722/1569.17071
  36. Liliana Dell’Osso, Mario Miniati Il modello di spettro e il contributo dello “spectrum project”: ridefinizione di una realtà clinica Nóos 2014; DOI: 10.1722/1569.17069
  37. Dell'osso L, Carmassi C, Rucci P, Ciapparelli A, Conversano C, Marazziti D Complicated grief and suicidality: the impact of subthreshold mood symptoms. CNS Spectr. 2014 Apr 15; 16 :1-6 DOI: 10.1017/S1092852912000090 PubMed ID: 24725296

    IntroductionThe aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between subthreshold mood symptoms and suicidality in patients with complicated grief (CG).

  38. Dell'Osso L, Carmassi C Post-traumatic stress spectrum in the DSM-5 era: what we learned from the L'Aquila experience' Journal of Psychopathology 2014; :20:107-110
  39. Dell'Osso L, Rugani F, Maremmani AG, Bertoni S, Pani PP, Maremmani I Towards a unitary perspective between post-traumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder. Heroin use disorder as case study. Compr Psychiatry. 2014 May 6; 55 :1244-51 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.03.012 Epub. 2014 Mar 26 PubMed ID: 24791684

    Genetic, neurobiological, environmental and psychosocial mechanisms have received considerable attention in exploring the mechanisms that underlie comorbid PTSD and SUD. PTSD and SUD are not necessarily linked by a causal relationship, as the self-medication hypothesis had supposed. They might, in fact, both be caused by a third factor that predisposes these subjects to develop the two disorders (so allowing a unitary perspective).

  40. Stratta P, Capanna C, Carmassi C, Patriarca S, Di Emidio G, Riccardi I, Collazzoni A, Dell'Osso L, Rossi A The adolescent emotional coping after an earthquake: a risk factor for suicidal ideation. J Adolesc. 2014 Jun 17; 37 :605-11 DOI: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.03.015 Epub. 2014 May 14 PubMed ID: 24931563

    The study aims to investigate the relationship of suicidal ideation with coping and resilience in a sample of adolescents who survived an earthquake. Three hundred forty-three adolescents who had experienced the L'Aquila earthquake were investigated for a screening distinguishing Suicidal Screen-Negative (SSN) from the Positive (SSP) subjects. Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) and Brief Cope were administered. Emotion-focused coping score was significantly higher in SSP subjects. In the SSN but not in the SSP sample the READ total score correlated with problem-focused total score. A positive correlation was seen between emotion-focused and problem-focused scores in both samples, with a higher coefficient in SSP sample. Externalising problems and maladaptive behaviours can arise in adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Attention should be paid in reducing risk factors and in the development of psychological abilities, improving the coping strategies that can protect from emotional despair and suicidal ideation.

  41. Marazziti D, Rutigliano G, Baroni S, Landi P, Dell'Osso L Metabolic syndrome and major depression. CNS Spectr. 2013 Oct 10; 19 :293-304 DOI: 10.1017/S1092852913000667 Epub. 2013 Oct 08 PubMed ID: 24103843

    Major depression is associated with a 4-fold increased risk for premature death, largely accounted by cardiovascular disease (CVD). The relationship between depression and CVD is thought to be mediated by the so-called metabolic syndrome (MeS). Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated a co-occurrence of depression with MeS components, ie, visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Although the exact mechanisms linking MeS to depression are unclear, different hypotheses have been put forward. On the one hand, MeS could be the hallmark of the unhealthy lifestyle habits of depressed patients. On the other, MeS and depression might share common alterations of the stress system, including the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the autonomic nervous system, the immune system, and platelet and endothelial function. Both the conditions induce a low grade chronic inflammatory state that, in turn, leads to increased oxidative and nitrosative (O&NS) damage of neurons, pancreatic cells, and endothelium. Recently, neurobiological research revealed that peripheral hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin, which are classically involved in homeostatic energy balance, may play a role in mood regulation. Metabolic risk should be routinely assessed in depressed patients and taken into account in therapeutic decisions. Alternative targets should be considered for innovative antidepressant agents, including cytokines and their receptors, intracellular inflammatory mediators, glucocorticoids receptors, O&NS pathways, and peripheral mediators.

  42. Carmassi C, Shear MK, Massimetti G, Wall M, Mauro C, Gemignani S, Conversano C, Dell'Osso L Validation of the Italian version Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG): a study comparing CG patients versus bipolar disorder, PTSD and healthy controls. Compr Psychiatry. 2014 Apr 12; 55 :1322-9 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.03.001 Epub. 2014 Mar 21 PubMed ID: 24721191

    A minority (9%-20%) of bereaved individuals experience symptoms of persistent intense grief associated with significant distress and impairment. This recently identified distinct post-loss syndrome has been variously named complicated grief, prolonged grief disorder, traumatic grief and persistent complex bereavement disorder. The Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG) is a self-report instrument used to reliably identify this syndrome. We undertook a study to: 1) validate the Italian version of the ICG; 2) examine its performance in a clinical of bereaved individuals with complicated grief, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder and healthy controls.

  43. Callari A, Mantua V, Miniati M, Benvenuti A, Mauri M, Dell'osso L Manic episode after ventricular-peritoneal shunt replacement in a patient with radiation-induced hydrocephalus: the role of lifetime subthreshold bipolar features. Case Rep Psychiatry. 2014 Feb 15; 2014 :953728 DOI: 10.1155/2014/953728 Epub. 2014 Jan 12 PubMed ID: 24527253

    We present a case report of a woman hospitalized for a ventricular-peritoneal shunting replacement, who developed a manic episode with psychotic symptoms after hydrocephalus resolution. We have no knowledge of cases of manic episodes due to hydrocephalus resolution by ventricular-peritoneal shunt replacement, although previous case reports have suggested that hydrocephalus might induce rapid-onset affective episodes or mood cycles. The patient's history revealed the lifetime presence of signs and features belonging to the subthreshold bipolar spectrum, in absence of previous full-blown episodes of a bipolar disorder. Our hypothesis is that such lifetime sub-threshold bipolar features represented precursors of the subsequent full-blown manic episode, triggered by an upregulated binding of striatum D2 receptors after the ventricular-peritoneal shunt replacement.

  44. Carmassi C, Shear MK, Socci C, Corsi M, Dell'osso L, First MB Complicated grief and manic comorbidity in the aftermath of the loss of a son. J Psychiatr Pract. 2013 Sep 18; 19 :419-28 DOI: 10.1097/01.pra.0000435042.13921.73 PubMed ID: 24042249

    Based on the recommendations of the sub-workgroup on trauma and dissociative disorders, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) removed the "bereavement exclusion" from the criteria for major depression in DSM-5. In addition, proposed DSM-5 research criteria for persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) were included in the new manual in a section for conditions and criteria needing further research. We describe a case that warranted such a diagnosis. The patient was a 52- year-old woman who was admitted to the inpatient unit of our clinic on the birthday of her son who had died 18 months earlier. She was diagnosed with a manic episode with psychotic symptoms according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria and was treated accordingly. Three months after discharge, she made a suicide attempt and was admitted and re-assessed. During this admission, she completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), the Mood-Spectrum Rating Scale (MOODS-SR), and the Trauma and Loss Spectrum questionnaire (TALS-SR). She endorsed symptoms of intense yearning for her son, feelings of shock and disbelief, anger and bitterness related to his death, estrangement from others, auditory, tactile and visual hallucinations of the deceased, and intense emotional reactivity to memories of her son. These symptoms were sufficiently prolonged and severe to meet criteria for complicated grief. While complicated grief appeared to be the primary diagnosis for this patient, when she was diagnosed using only DSMIV-TR criteria, her treatment failed to address herprimary problem. This case draws attention to the occurrence of manic-like symptoms as well as depression-like manifestations following bereavement and highlights the importance of including the syndrome of complicated grief in the diagnostic nomenclature.

  45. Carmassi C, Akiskal HS, Bessonov D, Massimetti G, Calderani E, Stratta P, Rossi A, Dell'Osso L Gender differences in DSM-5 versus DSM-IV-TR PTSD prevalence and criteria comparison among 512 survivors to the L'Aquila earthquake. J Affect Disord. 2014 Apr 9; 160 :55-61 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.02.028 Epub. 2014 Feb 26 PubMed ID: 24709023

    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has demonstrated gender-specific prevalence and expressions across the different DSM definitions, since its first introduction in DSM-III. The DSM-5 recently introduced important revisions to PTSD symptomatological criteria. Aim of the present study is to explore whether gender moderates rates of DSM-5 PTSD expression in a non-clinical sample of survivors to a massive earthquake in Italy.

  46. Vanni F, Conversano C, Del Debbio A, Landi P, Carlini M, Fanciullacci C, Bergamasco M, Di Fiorino A, Dell'Osso L A survey on virtual environment applications to fear of public speaking. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013 Jul 9; 17 :1561-8 PubMed ID: 23832719

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders in Europe and comprises the fear of public speaking as its typical sub-type. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is the intervention of choice for SAD, and it includes exposure to anxiety-provoking stimuli to induce systematic desensitization and reduce anxiety. Similarly, exposure therapy per se has been used and found effective, although it is not as specific as CBT for the treatment of SAD. Interestingly, exposure to anxiety-provoking situations can be achieved in Virtual Environments (VEs) through the simulation of social situations allowing individuals with public speaking anxiety to live and develop real exposure-like reactions. The Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is the treatment of anxiety disorders based on such VEs.

  47. Carmassi C, Akiskal HS, Yong SS, Stratta P, Calderani E, Massimetti E, Akiskal KK, Rossi A, Dell'Osso L Post-traumatic stress disorder in DSM-5: estimates of prevalence and criteria comparison versus DSM-IV-TR in a non-clinical sample of earthquake survivors. J Affect Disord. 2013 Oct 19; 151 :843-8 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.07.020 Epub. 2013 Aug 26 PubMed ID: 24135508

    The latest edition of DSM (DSM-5) introduced important revisions to PTSD symptomatological criteria, such as a four-factor model and the inclusion of new symptoms. To date, only a few studies have investigated the impact that the proposed DSM-5 criteria will have on prevalence rates of PTSD.

  48. Dell'osso L, Stratta P, Conversano C, Massimetti E, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS, Rossi A, Carmassi C Lifetime mania is related to post-traumatic stress symptoms in high school students exposed to the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. Compr Psychiatry. 2013 Nov 26; 55 :357-62 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.08.017 Epub. 2013 Oct 18 PubMed ID: 24269194

    Bipolar patients seem to be at high risk of trauma exposure and, when exposed, of PTSD. When comorbid, PTSD has shown a negative impact on the course of the bipolar illness. Conversely, a correlation between even manic symptoms and an increased risk for suicide has also been reported in PTSD patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between lifetime mood spectrum symptoms and PTSD in a sample of earthquake survivors.

  49. A. Rossi, C. Carmassi, E. Daneluzzo, P. Stratta, I. Riccardi, A. Marino, V. Di Ubaldo, G. Di Emidio, S. Patriarca, G. Massimetti, L. Dell'Osso Community Assessment of psichica Experiences (CAPE) and Trauma and Loss Spectrum (TALS) 12 months after an earthquake in Italy Journal of Psychopathology 2013; :19:68-72
  50. Dell'Osso L, Marazziti D, Da Pozzo E, Conversano C, Baroni S, Massimetti G, Martini C, Carmassi C Gender effect on the relationship between stress hormones and panic-agoraphobic spectrum dimensions in healthy subjects. CNS Spectr. 2012 Dec 21; 17 :214-20 DOI: 10.1017/S1092852912000685 PubMed ID: 23253196

    Alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and of its peripheral indices have been reported in both normal and pathological anxiety with controversial findings. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible correlations between serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) levels and DHEA-S/cortisol ratio, and panic-agoraphobic spectrum dimensions in a sample of healthy subjects.

  51. Liliana Dell'Osso, Claudia Carmassi, Ciro Conversano, Gabriele Massimetti, Martina Corsi, Paolo Stratta Post traumatic stress spectrum and maladaptive behaviour (drug abuse included) after catastrophic events: L'Aquila 2009 earthquake as case. Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems. 12/2012; :14(4):95-104
  52. Dell'osso L, Carmassi C, Stratta P, Massimetti G, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS, Maremmani I, Rossi A Gender Differences in the Relationship between Maladaptive Behaviors and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A Study on 900 L' Aquila 2009 Earthquake Survivors. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Jan 8; 3 :111 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00111 Epub. 2013 Jan 04 PubMed ID: 23293608

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents one of the most frequently psychiatric sequelae to earthquake exposure. Increasing evidence suggests the onset of maladaptive behaviors among veterans and adolescents with PTSD, with specific gender differences emerging in the latter. Aims of the present study were to investigate the relationships between maladaptive behaviors and PTSD in earthquake survivors, besides the gender differences in the type and prevalence of maladaptive behaviors and their association with PTSD.

  53. Stratta P, Bonanni RL, Sanità P, de Cataldo S, Angelucci A, Origlia N, Domenici L, Carmassi C, Piccinni A, Dell'Osso L, Rossi A Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor in earthquake survivors with full and partial post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.. 2013 Jul 18; 67 :363-4 DOI: 10.1111/pcn.12064 PubMed ID: 23859665
  54. Dell'osso L, Casu G, Carlini M, Conversano C, Gremigni P, Carmassi C Sexual obsessions and suicidal behaviors in patients with mood disorders, panic disorder and schizophrenia. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Nov 1; 11 :27 DOI: 10.1186/1744-859X-11-27 Epub. 2012 Oct 30 PubMed ID: 23110965
  55. Dell'osso L, Pini S What Did We Learn from Research on Comorbidity In Psychiatry? Advantages and Limitations in the Forthcoming DSM-V Era. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2013 Jan 11; 8 :180-4 DOI: 10.2174/1745017901208010180 Epub. 2012 Dec 10 PubMed ID: 23304235

    Despite the large amount of research conducted in this area over the last two decades, comorbidity of psychiatric disorders remains a topic of major practical and theoretical significance.Official diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines of psychiatric disorders still do not provide clinicians and researchers with any treatment-specific indications for those cases presenting with psychiatric comorbidity. We will discuss the diagnostic improvement brought about, in clinical practice, by the punctual and refined recognition of threshold and subthreshold comorbidity. From such a perspective, diagnostic procedures and forthcoming systems of classification of mental disorders should attempt to combine descriptive, categorical and dimensional approaches, addressing more attention to the cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of nuclear, subclinical, and atypical symptoms that may represent a pattern of either full-blown or partially expressed psychiatric comorbidity. This should certainly be regarded as a positive development. Parallel, continuous critical challenge seems to be vital in this area, in order to prevent dangerous trivializations and misunderstandings.

  56. Dell'Osso L, Carmassi C, Massimetti G, Stratta P, Riccardi I, Capanna C, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS, Rossi A Age, gender and epicenter proximity effects on post-traumatic stress symptoms in L'Aquila 2009 earthquake survivors. J Affect Disord. 2012 Oct 27; 146 :174-80 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2012.08.048 Epub. 2012 Oct 23 PubMed ID: 23098626

    Earthquakes are among the most frequently occurring natural disasters affecting the general population and inducing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Thus, increasing effort has been devoted to explore risk factors for PTSD onset after exposure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of gender, degree of exposure and age on PTSD and post-traumatic stress symptoms in the general population exposed to the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake (Richter Magnitude 6.3).

  57. Stratta P, Capanna C, Riccardi I, Perugi G, Toni C, Dell'Osso L, Rossi A Spirituality and religiosity in the aftermath of a natural catastrophe in Italy. J Relig Health. 2012 Mar 8; 52 :1029-37 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-012-9591-z PubMed ID: 22395757

    The aim of this study is to assess the influence of spirituality and religiousness on the psychological traumatic effects of a catastrophic event in a population that had been exposed to an earthquake compared with a control population that had not been exposed. A total of 901 people have been evaluated using: (1) Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality; (2) Impact of Event Scale and (3) Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR). Self-perceptions of spirituality and religiousness were used to rank the samples, distinguishing between spiritual and religious, spiritual-only, religious-only and neither spiritual nor religious groups. The sample that had experienced the earthquake showed lower scores in spiritual dimension. The religious-only group of those who were exposed to the earthquake demonstrated TALS-SR re-experiencing and arousal domain scores similar to the population that was not exposed. A weakening of spiritual religiosity in people having difficulty coping with trauma is a consistent finding. We further observed that the religious dimension helped to buffer the community against psychological distress caused by the earthquake. The religiosity dimension can positively affect the ability to cope with traumatic experiences.

  58. Fournier JC, Cyranowski JM, Rucci P, Cassano GB, Frank E The multiple dimensions of the social anxiety spectrum in mood disorders. J Psychiatr Res. 2012 Jul 10; 46 :1223-30 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.06.002 Epub. 2012 Jul 05 PubMed ID: 22771202

    Major depressive disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders are debilitating conditions associated with severe impairment. The presence of co-occurring social phobia can make the clinical course of these disorders even more challenging. To better understand the nature of social anxiety in the context of ongoing mood disorders, we report the results of exploratory factor analyses of the Social Phobia Spectrum Self-Report Instrument (SHY), a 162-item measure designed to capture the full spectrum of manifestations and features associated with social anxiety experienced across the lifespan. We examined data from 359 adult outpatients diagnosed with major depressive disorder and 403 outpatients diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder. The measure was divided into its two components: the SHY-General (SHY-G), reflecting general social anxiety features, and the SHY-Specific (SHY-S), reflecting anxiety in specific situations. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted for each using tetrachoric correlation matrices and an unweighted least squares estimator. Item invariance was evaluated for important patient subgroups. Five factors were identified for the SHY-G, representing general features of social anxiety: Fear of Social Disapproval, Childhood Social Anxiety, Somatic Social Anxiety, Excessive Agreeableness, and Behavioral Submission. Seven specific-situation factors were identified from the SHY-S: Writing in Public, Dating, Public Speaking, Eating in Public, Shopping Fears, Using Public Restrooms, and Unstructured Social Interactions. The identified dimensions provide clinically valuable information about the nature of the social fears experienced by individuals diagnosed with mood disorders and could help guide the development of tailored treatment strategies for individuals with co-occurring mood disorders and social anxiety.

  59. L. Dell'Osso, C. Carmassi, G. Massimetti, C. Conversano, G. Di Emidio, P. Stratta, A. Rossi Post-traumatic stress spectrum in young versus middle-aged L'Aquila 2009 earthquake survivors Journal of Psychopathology 2012; :18:281-289
  60. Frank E Bipolar spectrum: has its time come? World Psychiatry. 2011 Oct 13; 10 :193-4 PubMed ID: 21991274
  61. Cassano GB, Mantua V, Fagiolini A Bipolar spectrum: just broadening or an integration between categories and dimensions? World Psychiatry. 2011 Oct 13; 10 :192-3 PubMed ID: 21991273
  62. Miniati M, Calugi S, Rucci P, Shear MK, Benvenuti A, Santoro D, Mauri M, Cassano GB Predictors of response among patients with panic disorder treated with medications in a naturalistic follow-up: the role of adult separation anxiety. J Affect Disord. 2011 Dec 3; 136 :675-9 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.10.008 Epub. 2011 Nov 30 PubMed ID: 22134042

    Efficacy of treatments for panic disorder is well established, but not all patients respond. Adult separation anxiety has been found to predict poorer response to CBT, but its effect on response to medication has not been previously explored.

  63. Dell'osso L, Carmassi C, Corsi M, Pergentini I, Socci C, Maremmani AG, Perugi G Adult separation anxiety in patients with complicated grief versus healthy control subjects: relationships with lifetime depressive and hypomanic symptoms. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2011 Oct 29; 10 :29 DOI: 10.1186/1744-859X-10-29 Epub. 2011 Oct 27 PubMed ID: 22032687

    Around 9% to 20% of bereaved individuals experience symptoms of complicated grief (CG) that are associated with significant distress and impairment. A major issue is whether CG represents a distinctive nosographic entity, independent from other mental disorders, particularly major depression (MD), and the role of symptoms of adult separation anxiety. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with CG versus a sample of healthy control subjects, with particular focus on adult separation anxiety and lifetime mood spectrum symptoms.

  64. Dell'OSso L, Carmassi C, Massimetti G, Conversano C, Daneluzzo E, Riccardi I, Stratta P, Rossi A Impact of traumatic loss on post-traumatic spectrum symptoms in high school students after the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake in Italy. J Affect Disord. 2011 Aug 2; 134 :59-64 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.06.025 Epub. 2011 Jul 31 PubMed ID: 21803426

    On April 6th 2009, the town of L'Aquila, Italy, was struck by an earthquake (6.3 on the Richter scale) that lead large parts of the town to be destroyed and the death of 309 people. Significant losses in the framework of earthquakes have been reported as a major risk factor for PTSD development. Aim of this study was to investigate post-traumatic spectrum symptoms in a sample of adolescents exposed to the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake 21 months earlier, with particular attention to the impact of loss.

  65. Dell'Osso L, Carmassi C, Musetti L, Socci C, Shear MK, Conversano C, Maremmani I, Perugi G Lifetime mood symptoms and adult separation anxiety in patients with complicated grief and/or post-traumatic stress disorder: a preliminary report. Psychiatry Res. 2012 Mar 23; 198 :436-40 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2011.12.020 Epub. 2012 Mar 19 PubMed ID: 22436352

    A minority of bereaved individuals experiences symptoms of complicated grief (CG) that are associated with significant distress and impairment. CG is currently under consideration for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-V) and a major issue is whether or not it can be differentiated from major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical features of CG with those of PTSD and CG+PTSD. A total sample of 116 patients (66 PTSD, 22 CG and 28 CG+PTSD) was recruited. Assessments included: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I/P), Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire (ASA-27), Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), and Mood Spectrum-Self Report (MOODS-SR) lifetime version. CG was strongly associated with female gender. MDD comorbidity was more common among patients with CG while bipolar disorder was highest among those with PTSD+CG. Patients with CG+PTSD reported significantly higher ASA-27 scores compared to patients with either CG or PTSD alone. Patients with CG+PTSD or PTSD alone reported significantly higher scores on the manic component of the MOODS-SR. No significant differences were reported in the WSAS scores. Our results support differences between CG and PTSD that are important for the consideration of including CG as a new disorder in the DSM-V.

  66. Cassano GB, Rucci P, Benvenuti A, Miniati M, Calugi S, Maggi L, Pini S, Kupfer DJ, Maj M, Fagiolini A, Frank E The role of psychomotor activation in discriminating unipolar from bipolar disorders: a classification-tree analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2012 Feb 10; 73 :22-8 DOI: 10.4088/JCP.11m06946 PubMed ID: 22316575

    Multiple studies indicate that bipolar disorders are often underrecognized, misdiagnosed, and incorrectly treated. The aim of the present report is to determine which combination of clinical, demographic, and psychopathological factors and corresponding cutoff scores best discriminate patients with unipolar disorder from those with bipolar disorders.

  67. Dell'Osso L, Carmassi C, Consoli G, Conversano C, Ramacciotti CE, Musetti L, Massimetti E, Pergentini I, Corsi M, Ciapparelli A, Bazzichi L Lifetime post-traumatic stress symptoms are related to the health-related quality of life and severity of pain/fatigue in patients with fibromyalgia. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.. 2012 Jan 17; 29 :S73-8 Epub. 2012 Jan 03 PubMed ID: 22243552

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of lifetime potentially traumatic events, including losses, and of post-traumatic stress symptoms on the severity of illness and health-related quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia (FM).

  68. Dell'Osso L, Carmassi C PTSD 30 years after DSM-III: current controversies and future challenges Journal of Psychopathology 2011; :17:1-4
  69. Piccinni A, Bazzichi L, Marazziti D, Veltri A, Bombardieri S, Conversano C, Ciapparelli A, Dell'Osso L Subthreshold mood symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.. 2011 Dec 3; 29 :S55-9 Epub. 2012 Jan 03 PubMed ID: 22132737

    Although several findings have highlighted the prevalence of Axis I psychiatric disorders in fibromyalgia (FM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), very little information is available on the prevalence of subthreshold mood symptoms in these conditions. Therefore, we aimed at comparing the prevalence of subthreshold mood symptoms in rheumatic patients suffering from FM and RA. The hypothesis is that subthreshold mood symptoms are more represented in FM, given the evidence of higher rates of Axis I psychopathology in FM than in RA.

  70. Dell'Osso L, Carmassi C, Massimetti G, Daneluzzo E, Di Tommaso S, Rossi A Full and partial PTSD among young adult survivors 10 months after the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake: gender differences. J Affect Disord. 2011 Jan 29; 131 :79-83 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.11.023 Epub. 2011 Jan 26 PubMed ID: 21272938

    Earthquakes are one of the most frequently occurring natural disasters and extensive research has been conducted on mental disorders on exposed populations, particularly on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). On April 6th 2009, the town of L'Aquila (Abruzzo), in central Italy, was struck by an earthquake with a strength of 5.9 on the Richter scale. In the town of L'Aquila many buildings collapsed and large parts of the town were destroyed. Overall, 309 people were killed, 1600 injured among which 200 severely injured and hospitalized, more than 65,000 people were displaced.

  71. Rucci P, Frank E, Scocco P, Calugi S, Miniati M, Fagiolini A, Cassano GB Treatment-emergent suicidal ideation during 4 months of acute management of unipolar major depression with SSRI pharmacotherapy or interpersonal psychotherapy in a randomized clinical trial. Depress Anxiety. 2011 Feb 11; 28 :303-9 DOI: 10.1002/da.20758 Epub. 2011 Feb 09 PubMed ID: 21308882

    To date, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of major depression have examined suicidal ideation as an outcome measure. Our aim is to determine the incidence of treatment-emergent suicidal ideation (ESI) and behaviors during the acute phase of treatment with an SSRI antidepressant or interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in patients with unipolar major depression.

  72. Frank E, Cassano GB, Rucci P, Thompson WK, Kraemer HC, Fagiolini A, Maggi L, Kupfer DJ, Shear MK, Houck PR, Calugi S, Grochocinski VJ, Scocco P, Buttenfield J, Forgione RN Predictors and moderators of time to remission of major depression with interpersonal psychotherapy and SSRI pharmacotherapy. Psychol Med. 2010 Apr 13; 41 :151-62 DOI: 10.1017/S0033291710000553 Epub. 2010 Apr 12 PubMed ID: 20380782

    Although many studies suggest that, on average, depression-specific psychotherapy and antidepressant pharmacotherapy are efficacious, we know relatively little about which patients are more likely to respond to one versus the other. We sought to determine whether measures of spectrum psychopathology are useful in deciding which patients with unipolar depression should receive pharmacotherapy versus depression-specific psychotherapy.

  73. Calugi S, Cassano GB, Litta A, Rucci P, Benvenuti A, Miniati M, Lattanzi L, Mantua V, Lombardi V, Fagiolini A, Frank E Does psychomotor retardation define a clinically relevant phenotype of unipolar depression? J Affect Disord. 2010 Sep 14; 129 :296-300 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.08.004 Epub. 2010 Sep 15 PubMed ID: 20833434

    The recognition and assessment of psychomotor retardation may have implications for better definition of the clinical phenotypes of depression. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical correlates of psychomotor retardation endorsed at any time during the patients' lifetime (LPR).

  74. Dell'Osso L, Bazzichi L, Consoli G, Carmassi C, Carlini M, Massimetti E, Giacomelli C, Bombardieri S, Ciapparelli A Manic spectrum symptoms are correlated to the severity of pain and the health-related quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.. 2010 Jan 16; 27 :S57-61 PubMed ID: 20074441

    We aimed at investigating the impact of lifetime manic spectrum symptoms on the severity of pain and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with fibromyalgia (FM).

  75. Benvenuti A, Rucci P, Calugi S, Cassano GB, Miniati M, Frank E Relationship of residual mood and panic-agoraphobic spectrum phenomenology to quality of life and functional impairment in patients with major depression. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010 Jan 12; 25 :68-74 DOI: 10.1097/YIC.0b013e328333ee8e PubMed ID: 20061961

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of residual mood and panic-agoraphobic spectrum phenomenology to functional impairment and quality of life in 226 adult outpatients who had remitted from a major depressive episode. Quality of life and functioning were assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Residual symptoms were assessed using the Mood and Panic-Agoraphobic Spectrum Questionnaires. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the relationship of mood and panic-agoraphobic spectrum factors with quality of life and functioning. Poor quality of life was associated with the Mood Spectrum Self-Report Questionnaire factors 'depressive mood' and 'psychotic features' and the Panic-Agoraphobic Spectrum Self-Report Questionnaire factors 'separation anxiety' and 'loss sensitivity'. Functional impairment was associated with the Mood Spectrum Self-Report Questionnaire factor 'psychomotor retardation' and the Panic-Agoraphobic Spectrum Self-Report Questionnaire factor 'fear of losing control'. These relationships were held after controlling for the severity of depression at the entry in the continuation treatment phase. In conclusion, the spectrum assessment is a useful tool for clinicians to identify areas of residual symptomatology that can be targeted with focused and effective long-term treatment strategies.

  76. Carlini M, Bizzarri JV, Bevilacqua L, Landi P, Marazziti D, Dell'Osso L. Gender differences in mood symptomatology: a comparison between subthreshold mood spectrum versus Axis I disorders. Giorn Ital Psicopatol. Volume 15 December 2009; Issue 4
  77. Dell'Osso L, Carmassi C, Carlini M, Rucci P, Torri P, Cesari D, Landi P, Ciapparelli A, Maggi M Sexual dysfunctions and suicidality in patients with bipolar disorder and unipolar depression. J Sex Med. 2009 Sep 8; 6 :3063-70 DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01455.x Epub. 2009 Sep 01 PubMed ID: 19732307

    Impairment in sexual function is frequent and underestimated in patients with mental disorders, particularly in those with mood disorders. Few studies have examined the relationship between sexual dysfunctions and the clinical characteristics of mood disorders.

  78. Benvenuti A, Rucci P, Sbrana A, Ravani L, Massei GJ, Gonnelli C, Cassano GB. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum and suicidality in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Giorn Ital Psicopatol. Volume 15 September 2009; Issue 3
  79. Benedetti A, Pini S, DE Girolamo G, Berrocal C, Tundo A, Morosini P, Cassano GB The psychotic spectrum: a community-based study. World Psychiatry. 2009 Jun 12; 8 :110-4 PubMed ID: 19516935

    Over the last years, there has been an increasing awareness and knowledge about bipolar spectrum disorders. However, descriptive data on bipolar I disorder with psychotic features (BPI-p) in comparison with schizophrenia (SCH) and schizoaffective disorder (SA) in mental health community services are scanty in the literature. We conducted a study with the aim of assessing the prevalence, clinical characteristics and levels of functioning of SCH, SA and BPI-p in a random sample of patients with psychotic symptoms recruited in nine departments of mental health. Patients with a psychotic disorder according to their treating clinicians were assessed using the SCID and a series of questionnaires to evaluate their psychopathology and level of functioning. Patients who received a DSM-IV diagnosis of SA (N=55), SCH (N=82), or BPI-p (N=60) represented the final sample. The three diagnostic groups showed similar demographic characteristics. Independently from the diagnosis, all patients had a long duration of illness and a persistent course. Uni-variate group comparisons showed that, as compared to SCH patients, BPI-p and SA patients did better in several measures of functioning and differed in frequency of psychotic symptoms. However, a multinomial logistic regression model in which only significantly different variables were entered showed similar levels of functioning in the three groups of patients. The three groups' scores did not significantly differ on instruments that assessed dimensionally psychotic and affective symptoms during the previous month.

  80. Bizzarri JV, Benedetti A, Rucci P, Scarpellini P, Milani F, Milianti M, Massei GJ, Sbrana A, Cassano GB. Comorbidity with anxiety and substance use disorders in patients with schizophrenia. Giorn Ital Psicopatol. Volume 15 June 2009; Issue 2
  81. Dell'osso L, Carmassi C, Rucci P, Ciapparelli A, Paggini R, Ramacciotti CE, Conversano C, Balestrieri M, Marazziti D Lifetime subthreshold mania is related to suicidality in posttraumatic stress disorder. CNS Spectr. 2009 May 2; 14 :262-6 PubMed ID: 19407725

    Although the association between mood disorders, and particularly bipolar disorders, comorbidity and suicidality in posttraumatic (PTSD) patients is well established, less information is available on the impact of subsyndromal mood symptoms. The aim of the present study was, thus, to explore the frequency and relationship between subthreshold mood symptoms, assessed by a specific and validated questionnaire, and suicidality in PTSD patients.

  82. Goracci A, Fagiolini A, Salviulo C, Forgione RN, Martinucci M, Castrogiovanni P Panic agoraphobic spectrum in psychiatrically healthy subjects: impact on quality of life. Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc. 2009 Apr 22; 18 :65-8 PubMed ID: 19378702
  83. Miniati M, Rucci P, Frank E, Oppo A, Kupfer DJ, Fagiolini A, Cassano GB Sensitivity to change and predictive validity of the MOODS-SR questionnaire, last-month version. Psychother Psychosom. 2009 Feb 17; 78 :116-24 DOI: 10.1159/000201937 Epub. 2009 Feb 13 PubMed ID: 19218830

    Instruments that are intended to measure change over time need to emphasize sensitivity to change as a central property. The aims of this report are to test whether the MOODS-SR, a measure of mood spectrum symptomatology, is sensitive to changes during acute and continuation treatment of depression and whether residual mood spectrum symptoms predict relapse in the subsequent 6 months.

  84. Mula M, Pini S, Calugi S, Preve M, Masini M, Giovannini I, Conversano C, Rucci P, Cassano GB Validity and reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization-Derealization Spectrum (SCI-DER). Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009 Feb 3; 4 :977-86 PubMed ID: 19183789

    This study evaluates the validity and reliability of a new instrument developed to assess symptoms of depresonalization: the Structured Clinical Interview for the Depersonalization-Derealization Spectrum (SCI-DER). The instrument is based on a spectrum model that emphasizes soft-signs, sub-threshold syndromes as well as clinical and subsyndromal manifestations. Items of the interview include, in addition to DSM-IV criteria for depersonalization, a number of features derived from clinical experience and from a review of phenomenological descriptions. Study participants included 258 consecutive patients with mood and anxiety disorders, 16.7% bipolar I disorder, 18.6% bipolar II disorder, 32.9% major depression, 22.1% panic disorder, 4.7% obsessive compulsive disorder, and 1.5% generalized anxiety disorder; 2.7% patients were also diagnosed with depersonalization disorder. A comparison group of 42 unselected controls was enrolled at the same site. The SCI-DER showed excellent reliability and good concurrent validity with the Dissociative Experiences Scale. It significantly discriminated subjects with any diagnosis of mood and anxiety disorders from controls and subjects with depersonalization disorder from controls. The hypothesized structure of the instrument was confirmed empirically.

  85. Mula M, Jauch R, Cavanna A, Collimedaglia L, Barbagli D, Gaus V, Kretz R, Viana M, Cantello R, Monaco F, Schmitz B Manic/hypomanic symptoms and quality of life measures in patients with epilepsy. Seizure. 2009 Jun 23; 18 :530-2 DOI: 10.1016/j.seizure.2009.05.008 Epub. 2009 Jun 21 PubMed ID: 19541505

    Although several studies pointed out an association between depression and quality of life (QoL) of patients with epilepsy, data about manic/hypomanic symptoms (MHS) remain scanty. In this study, we sought to investigate their relationship with social and health-related QoL measures in patients with epilepsy.

  86. Mula M, Pini S, Calugi S, Preve M, Masini M, Giovannini I, Rucci P, Cassano GB Distinguishing affective depersonalization from anhedonia in major depression and bipolar disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2010 Feb 16; 51 :187-92 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2009.03.009 Epub. 2009 May 05 PubMed ID: 20152301

    Affective depersonalization has received limited attention in the literature, although its conceptualization may have implications in terms of identification of clinical endophenotypes of mood disorders. Thus, this study aims to test the hypothesis that anhedonia and affective depersonalization represent 2 distinct psychopathological dimensions and to investigate their clinical correlates in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD).

  87. Rucci P, Nimgaonkar VL, Mansour H, Miniati M, Masala I, Fagiolini A, Cassano GB, Frank E Gender moderates the relationship between mania spectrum and serotonin transporter polymorphisms in depression. Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.. 2009 Jan 7; 150B :907-13 DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.b.30917 PubMed ID: 19125390

    The short (s) variant of the serotonin transporter gene linked functional polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is associated with depression. Stressful life events, gender, and race have been shown to moderate this association. Because features of mania/hypomania seem to constitute an indicator of higher severity of depression, we examined the relationship between 5-HTTLPR genotype and symptoms of mania-hypomania spectrum occurring over the lifetime in patients with major depression. The possible moderating role of gender in this relationship was taken into account. Two hundred twenty-two patients with unipolar major depression were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR and nine other representative polymorphisms, and were administered the Mood Spectrum Questionnaire, Lifetime Version (MOODS-SR). The manic-hypomanic (MH) component score was used for analysis. Using a linear model of the MH score as a function of genotypes and gender, controlling for age, severity of depression, and site, we found significant effects of gender (F = 8.003, df = 1, P = 0.005), of the interaction gender x genotype (F = 4.505, df = 2, P = 0.012), and of the baseline Hamilton score (F = 5.404, df = 1, P = 0.021), non-significant effects of genotype (F = 1.298, df = 2, P = 0.275), age (F = 0.310, df = 1, P = 0.578) site (F = 0.504, df = 1, P = 0.479). Significant associations were also detected at three other SNPs. The association between the manic/hypomanic component of the MOODS-SR and the polymorphisms of the 5-HTTLPR is moderated by gender. This finding is intriguing from a clinical point of view because women with unipolar disorder and the "ss" genotype seem to constitute a sub-group with higher severity of depression. These results should be considered tentative pending replication in other samples.

  88. Miniati M, Rucci P, Benvenuti A, Frank E, Buttenfield J, Giorgi G, Cassano GB Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of depression in patients with and without a history of emotional and physical abuse. J Psychiatr Res. 2009 Oct 6; 44 :302-9 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.09.008 Epub. 2009 Oct 02 PubMed ID: 19800634

    Clinical features and treatment outcome were compared in depressed outpatients with and without a history of emotional and physical abuse (EPA), including childhood maltreatment. Patients were initially randomized to IPT or SSRI and then augmented with the second treatment if they did not remit with monotherapy. Assessments included the SCID-I, the SCID-II for DSM-IV diagnoses, the HRSD, the QIDS and the Mood Spectrum Self-Report (MOODS-SR). Seventy-eight (25%) patients reported a history of EPA; 60 (76.9%) were women. Patients with a history of EPA did not differ from those without on HRSD scores at baseline, but showed an earlier age at onset of depression and a longer duration of illness. The two groups differed on several mood spectrum factors, namely: 'depressivemood' (15.6+/-4.9 vs. 13.5+/-5.4; p<0.004), 'psychomotorretardation' (11.7+/-4.5 vs. 9.6+/-4.7; p<0.001), 'drugandillness-relateddepression' (1.3+/-1.3 vs. 0.6+/-1.0; p<0.0001), and 'neurovegetativesymptoms' (8.3+/-2.6 vs. 6.9+/-2.9; p<0.0001). Patients with EPA had also a significantly longer time to remission (89 vs. 67days, log-rank test, p=0.035). The need for augmentation treatment was significantly more frequent among patients with EPA than in those without. The present study suggests that patients with a history of EPA show a subtype of depression characterized by poor treatment response and more severe neurovegetative and psychomotor symptoms.

  89. Benvenuti A, Rucci P, Miniati M, Papasogli A, Fagiolini A, Cassano GB, Swartz H, Frank E Treatment-emergent mania/hypomania in unipolar patients. Bipolar Disord. 2008 Oct 8; 10 :726-32 DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2008.00613.x PubMed ID: 18837867

    The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of treatment-emergent mania/hypomania (TEMH) and to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with major depression experiencing this event during treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and/or interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT).

  90. Mula M, Pini S, Preve M, Masini M, Giovannini I, Cassano GB Clinical correlates of depersonalization symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2008 Sep 13; 115 :252-6 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2008.08.001 Epub. 2008 Sep 11 PubMed ID: 18786726

    Prevalence and clinical correlates of dissociative symptoms in general, and depersonalization (DP) in particular, in patients with mood disorders have received limited attention in the literature. Nevertheless, the identification of these symptoms may have important implications in terms of a better definition of clinical endophenotypes. Thus, this study aimed at investigating frequency and clinical correlates of dissociative symptoms, with special attention to DP symptoms, in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) looking specifically at differences between BD-I and BD-II and the comorbidity with panic disorder.

  91. Frank E, Cassano GB, Rucci P, Fagiolini A, Maggi L, Kraemer HC, Kupfer DJ, Pollock B, Bies R, Nimgaonkar V, Pilkonis P, Shear MK, Thompson WK, Grochocinski VJ, Scocco P, Buttenfield J, Forgione RN Addressing the challenges of a cross-national investigation: lessons from the Pittsburgh-Pisa study of treatment-relevant phenotypes of unipolar depression. Clin Trials. 2008 Jun 19; 5 :253-61 DOI: 10.1177/1740774508091965 PubMed ID: 18559415

    To date, no cross-national RCT has addressed the mechanisms underlying the relative success of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions for depression. A multi-site clinical trial that includes psychotherapy as one of the treatments presents numerous challenges related to cross-site consistency and communication.

  92. Dell'Osso L, Carmassi C, Rucci P, Conversano C, Shear MK, Calugi S, Maser JD, Endicott J, Fagiolini A, Cassano GB A multidimensional spectrum approach to post-traumatic stress disorder: comparison between the Structured Clinical Interview for Trauma and Loss Spectrum (SCI-TALS) and the Self-Report instrument (TALS-SR). Compr Psychiatry. 2009 Aug 18; 50 :485-90 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2008.11.006 Epub. 2009 Jan 20 PubMed ID: 19683620

    Dimensional approaches to psychiatric disorders have shown an increased relevance in the ongoing debate for the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. In line with previously validated instruments for the assessment of different mood, anxiety, eating and psychotic spectra, we tested the validity and reliability of a newly developed Structured Clinical Interview for Trauma and Loss Spectrum (SCI-TALS). The instrument is based on a multidimensional approach to post-traumatic stress spectrum that includes a range of threatening or frightening experiences, as well as a variety of potentially significant losses, to which an individual can be exposed. Furthermore, it explores the spectrum of the peritraumatic reactions and post-traumatic symptoms that may ensue from either type of life events, targeting soft signs and subthreshold conditions, as well as temperamental and personality traits that may constitute risk factors for the development of the disorder. The aim of the present study is to describe the reliability of the self-report version of the SCI-TALS: the TALS-SR. Thirty patients with PTSD and thirty healthy control subjects were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Half of the patients and controls received the TALS-SR first and the SCI-TALS after 15 days; for the other half of the sample, the order of administration was reversed. Agreement between the self-report and the interview formats was substantial. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.934 to 0.994, always exceeding the threshold of 0.90. Our findings provide substantial support for the reliability of the TALS-SR questionnaire.

  93. Cassano GB, Benvenuti A, Miniati M, Calugi S, Mula M, Maggi L, Rucci P, Fagiolini A, Perris F, Frank E The factor structure of lifetime depressive spectrum in patients with unipolar depression. J Affect Disord. 2008 Oct 25; 115 :87-99 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2008.09.006 Epub. 2008 Oct 22 PubMed ID: 18947882

    While previous attempts to elucidate the factor structure of depression tended to agree on a central focus on depressed mood, other factors were not replicated across studies. By examining data from a large number of items covering the range of depressive symptoms, the aim of the present study is to contribute to the identification of the structure of depression on a lifetime perspective.

  94. Cassano GB, Mula M, Rucci P, Miniati M, Frank E, Kupfer DJ, Oppo A, Calugi S, Maggi L, Gibbons R, Fagiolini A The structure of lifetime manic-hypomanic spectrum. J Affect Disord. 2008 Jun 11; 112 :59-70 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2008.04.019 Epub. 2008 Jun 09 PubMed ID: 18541309

    The observation that bipolar disorders frequently go unrecognized has prompted the development of screening instruments designed to improve the identification of bipolarity in clinical and non-clinical samples. Starting from a lifetime approach, researchers of the Spectrum Project developed the Mood Spectrum Self-Report (MOODS-SR) that assesses threshold-level manifestations of unipolar and bipolar mood psychopathology, but also atypical symptoms, behavioral traits and temperamental features. The aim of the present study is to examine the structure of mania/hypomania using 68 items of the MOODS-SR that explore cognitive, mood and energy/activity features associated with mania/hypomania.

  95. Rucci P, Miniati M, Oppo A, Mula M, Calugi S, Frank E, Shear MK, Mauri M, Pini S, Cassano GB The structure of lifetime panic-agoraphobic spectrum. J Psychiatr Res. 2008 May 24; 43 :366-79 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.04.002 Epub. 2008 May 21 PubMed ID: 18499126

    The heterogeneity of the clinical presentation of panic disorder (PD) has prompted researchers to describe different subtypes of PD, on the basis of the observed predominant symptoms constellation. Starting from a dimensional approach to panic disorder, an instrument to assess lifetime panic-agoraphobic spectrum (PAS) available in interview or self-report form (SCI-PAS, PAS-SR) was developed which proved to have sound psychometric properties and the ability to predict delayed response to treatment in patients with mood disorders. However, the structure of the instrument was defined a priori and an examination of its empirical structure is still lacking. Aim of the present report is to analyse the factor structure of the PAS taking advantage of a large database of subjects with panic disorders (N=630) assessed in the framework of different studies. Using a classical exploratory factor analysis based on a tetrachoric correlation matrix and oblique rotation, 10 factors were extracted, accounting overall for 66.3% of the variance of the questionnaire: panic symptoms, agoraphobia, claustrophobia, separation anxiety, fear of losing control, drug sensitivity and phobia, medical reassurance, rescue object, loss sensitivity, reassurance from family members. The first two factors comprise the DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder and agoraphobia. The other factors had received limited empirical support to date. We submit that these symptoms profiles might be clinically relevant for tailoring drug treatments or psychotherapeutic approaches to specific needs. Future perspectives might include the use of these factors to select homogeneous subgroups of patients for brain-imaging studies and to contribute to elucidating the causes and pathophysiology of panic disorder at molecular level.

  96. Dell'Osso L, Da Pozzo E, Carmassi C, Trincavelli ML, Ciapparelli A, Martini C Lifetime manic-hypomanic symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder: relationship with the 18 kDa mitochondrial translocator protein density. Psychiatry Res. 2010 Apr 6; 177 :139-43 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2008.07.019 Epub. 2010 Apr 02 PubMed ID: 20363031

    Initially explored in military settings, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has shown increasing prevalence in the general population. The high comorbidity rates between bipolar disorder (BD) and PTSD have raised the issue of whether some characteristics of BD could represent risk factors for PTSD. In combat-related PTSD, the 18 kDa mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO), essential for steroid synthesis, was found to be decreased. Aims of the present study were: 1) the assessment of the TSPO mitochondrial density in lymphomonocytes from civilian patients with non-combat-related PTSD, without current or lifetime Axis I mood comorbidity, versus controls; 2) the exploration of the correlations between TSPO density and the presence of comorbid manic/hypomanic lifetime spectrum symptoms. Assessments included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), the Impact of Event Scale (IES), and the lifetime Mood Spectrum Self-Report (MOODS-SR). Blood samples were processed to assess TSPO binding parameters in lymphomonocyte mitochondrial membranes. PTSD patients showed a significant decrease in TSPO density, without changes in mitochondrial citrate synthase activity. Further, TSPO density correlated with the number of lifetime manic/hypomanic spectrum symptoms. For the first time, TSPO density was found to be decreased in non-war-related PTSD and such decreases correlated with comorbid manic/hypomanic spectrum symptoms, indicating a possible role of sub-threshold bipolar comorbidity in PTSD-related neurobiological dysregulation.

  97. Mula M, Pini S, Monteleone P, Iazzetta P, Preve M, Tortorella A, Amato E, Di Paolo L, Conversano C, Rucci P, Cassano GB, Maj M Different temperament and character dimensions correlate with panic disorder comorbidity in bipolar disorder and unipolar depression. J Anxiety Disord. 2008 Apr 11; 22 :1421-6 DOI: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.02.004 Epub. 2008 Feb 29 PubMed ID: 18400467

    This study aimed to investigate temperament and character correlates of panic disorder (PD) comorbidity in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) or unipolar depression (UD).

  98. Dell'osso L, Shear MK, Carmassi C, Rucci P, Maser JD, Frank E, Endicott J, Lorettu L, Altamura CA, Carpiniello B, Perris F, Conversano C, Ciapparelli A, Carlini M, Sarno N, Cassano GB Validity and reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Trauma and Loss Spectrum (SCI-TALS). Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2008 Jan 30; 4 :2 DOI: 10.1186/1745-0179-4-2 Epub. 2008 Jan 28 PubMed ID: 18226228

    DSM-IV identifies three stress response disorders (acute stress (ASD), post-traumatic stress (PTSD) and adjustment disorders (AD)) that derive from specific life events. An additional condition of complicated grief (CG), well described in the literature, is triggered by bereavement.

  99. Hardoy MC, Sardu C, Dell'osso L, Carta MG The link between neurosteroids and syndromic/syndromal components of the mood spectrum disorders in women during the premenstrual phase. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2008 Feb 28; 4 :3 DOI: 10.1186/1745-0179-4-3 Epub. 2008 Feb 26 PubMed ID: 18302757

    Females with a lifetime diagnosis of major mood disorder (Bipolar Disorder BD, Major Depressive Disorder MMD) investigated during the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle and in a condition of clinical well-being showed higher blood serum concentrations of progesterone and allopregnanolone compared to healthy controls. Women with BD presented even higher levels than those affected by MDD. This study attempted to verify, in line with a dimensional approach, if the possible differences in neurohormonal levels may be directly linked to some syndromal clusters (dimensions) of the mood spectrum disorders indipendently of diagnosis.

  100. Shear MK, Bjelland I, Beesdo K, Gloster AT, Wittchen HU Supplementary dimensional assessment in anxiety disorders. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2007 Aug 19; 16 Suppl 1 :S52-64 DOI: 10.1002/mpr.215 PubMed ID: 17623395

    Anxiety disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), comprise a relatively heterogeneous group of clinical conditions that range from specific phobias to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The grouping under one heading refers to the fact that these seemingly heterogeneous disorders share a number of common psychopathological features and also share at least some common principles in treatment. Among the shared elements are broadly defined prototypical anxiety reactions, panic attacks, anticipatory anxiety, avoidance behaviour, a predominantly early onset, and relatively high persistence rates over time. Many of the shared diagnostic features of anxiety disorders are by their nature dimensional, and hundreds of psychometric scales have been developed to measure these diagnostic constructs across anxiety disorder and for specific diagnostic classes. This paper explores different types of dimensional approaches used in the literature and discusses how an integrated categorical/dimensional strategy might enhance the usefulness of the DSM-V. We suggest the use of cross-cutting dimensional ratings that might ultimately lead to an improved classification model. We also suggest that a staging approach to illness, based upon supplementary dimensional rating could provide useful information for clinical and research purposes.

  101. Andrews G, Brugha T, Thase ME, Duffy FF, Rucci P, Slade T Dimensionality and the category of major depressive episode. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2007 Aug 19; 16 Suppl 1 :S41-51 DOI: 10.1002/mpr.216 PubMed ID: 17623394

    Major depressive episode (MDE) is a chronic disease typified by episodes that remit and recur. It is a major contributor to the burden of disease. The diagnosis of a disorder is an expert opinion that the disorder is present. The nine symptoms of MDE exist on dimensions of greater or lesser intensity, persistence over time, change in usual state, distress and impairment. It is the clinician's task to judge whether the elicited symptoms warrant the diagnosis. The surprise is that trained clinicians can do this reliably and that diagnostic interviews and questionnaires can emulate this process. The distribution of symptoms in community surveys is exponential, with no obvious discontinuity at the diagnostic threshold. Taxometric and primary care studies confirm this. The number of symptoms predicts severity, comorbidity, family history, disability, help seeking and treatment recommendations. The latent structure of mental disorders places MDE in the distress misery cluster. Measures of well-being, distress, disability and neuroticism correlate with the number of symptoms but the relation is not perfect. The Patient Health Questionnaire is derived from the diagnostic criteria and does not suffer this limitation. The introduction of measures like this would acknowledge dimensionality, would facilitate recognition, guide treatment, and be acceptable to consumers, providers and funders.

  102. Fagiolini A, Frank E, Rucci P, Cassano GB, Turkin S, Kupfer DJ Mood and anxiety spectrum as a means to identify clinically relevant subtypes of bipolar I disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2007 Aug 8; 9 :462-7 DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2007.00443.x PubMed ID: 17680916

    Latent class analysis of demographic and clinical variables can help identify subtypes of patients with bipolar disorder type I (BD I). Classification of patients into clinically relevant and homogeneous subtypes may have implications for further research. We examine the structure of mood and anxiety spectrum features in patients with BD I to identify subtypes with similar profiles.

  103. Bizzarri JV, Rucci P, Sbrana A, Miniati M, Raimondi F, Ravani L, Massei GJ, Milani F, Milianti M, Massei G, Gonnelli C, Cassano GB Substance use in severe mental illness: self-medication and vulnerability factors. Psychiatry Res. 2008 Dec 5; 165 :88-95 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2007.10.009 Epub. 2008 Dec 02 PubMed ID: 19054572

    The aim of this article is to examine the onset and clinical correlates of substance use in patients with psychotic disorders. One hundred and eight inpatients and outpatients with DSM-IV psychotic disorders were evaluated with the SCI-SUBS, an instrument designed to explore the spectrum of substance use and its clinical correlates. Comparisons were made between subjects with (n=47) and without (n=61) a DSM-IV diagnosis of substance use disorder (SUD). In patients with an early onset of psychosis (<17 years), the onset of SUD was subsequent. Patients with SUD had higher substance sensitivity, higher sensation-seeking traits and were more likely to self-medicate than patients without SUD. The reasons for self-medication endorsed by patients with SUD included relieving depression, achieving or maintaining euphoria, improving self-confidence and social abilities. Our results, based on a cross-sectional study, suggest that early onset of psychosis, substance sensitivity and sensation-seeking traits represent vulnerability factors for SUD. The relationships between SUD and psychosis should be examined systematically and clarified in longitudinal studies.

  104. Bizzarri JV, Sbrana A, Rucci P, Ravani L, Massei GJ, Gonnelli C, Spagnolli S, Doria MR, Raimondi F, Endicott J, Dell'Osso L, Cassano GB The spectrum of substance abuse in bipolar disorder: reasons for use, sensation seeking and substance sensitivity. Bipolar Disord. 2007 Apr 14; 9 :213-20 DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2007.00383.x PubMed ID: 17430295

    To examine the spectrum of alcohol and substance abuse, including reasons for use, in patients with bipolar I disorder, compared with patients with substance use disorder and healthy controls, with a specific focus on the relationship between substance use, substance sensitivity, other comorbid psychiatric symptoms and traits related to sensation seeking.

  105. Bizzarri JV, Rucci P, Casalboni D, Randi S, Girelli M, Pojer F, Sbrana A [Substance use and psychiatric symptoms in subjects referred to the drug addiction services by the prefecture]. Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc. 2007 Apr 13; 16 :73-8 PubMed ID: 17427607
  106. Wildes JE, Marcus MD, Gaskill JA, Ringham R Depressive and manic-hypomanic spectrum psychopathology in patients with anorexia nervosa. Compr Psychiatry. 2007 Aug 21; 48 :413-8 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2007.05.009 PubMed ID: 17707248

    We used a dimensional measure of mood psychopathology to document lifetime depressive and manic-hypomanic spectrum symptoms in 50 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN).

  107. Berrocal C, Ruiz Moreno MA, Rando MA, Benvenuti A, Cassano GB Borderline personality disorder and mood spectrum. Psychiatry Res. 2008 May 1; 159 :300-7 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2007.10.002 Epub. 2008 Apr 29 PubMed ID: 18445508

    Several lines of evidence have raised the question of whether Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is an independent disease entity or it might be better conceptualized as belonging to the spectrum of mood disorders. This study explores a wide array of lifetime mood features (mood, cognitions, energy, and rhythmicity and vegetative functions) in patients with BP and mood disorders. The sample consisted of 25 BPD patients who did not meet the criteria for bipolar disorders, 16 bipolar disorders patients who did not meet the criteria for BPD, 19 unipolar patients who did not meet the criteria for BPD, and 30 non-clinical subjects. Clinical diagnoses were determined by administering the structured clinical interviews for DSM-IV disorders. The Mood Spectrum Self-Report (MOODS-SR) was used for measuring lifetime mood phenomenology. Clinical subjects displayed higher mean scores than normal subjects in all domains of the MOODS-SR, and BPD patients displayed higher scores than unipolar patients in the Mood and Cognition depressive subdomains. Differences between patients with BP and bipolar disorders on MOODS psychopathology did not attain statistical significance for any (sub)domain considered. The results of this study are consistent with previous findings suggesting the importance of mood dysregulations in patients with BPD.

  108. Mula M, Pini S, Cassano GB The neurobiology and clinical significance of depersonalization in mood and anxiety disorders: a critical reappraisal. J Affect Disord. 2006 Sep 26; 99 :91-9 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2006.08.025 Epub. 2006 Sep 25 PubMed ID: 16997382

    Depersonalization and derealization occur on a continuum of situations, from healthy individuals to a severely debilitating disorder where the symptoms can persist chronically. Since 1960s, different neurobiological models have been hypothesized and they have been associated with the temporal lobes. Recent advances in the functioning of the limbic system and the application of Geschwind's concept of disconnection in the cortico-limbic networks, pointed the role of the amygdala and its connections with medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, the same structures that are strictly interlinked with the neurobiology of emotions and affective disorders. In this paper, we hypothesize that depersonalization may represent a clinical index of disease severity, poorer response to treatment and high level of comorbidity, in mood and anxiety disorders, discussing the neurobiology of depersonalization and the available clinical evidence.

  109. Dell'Osso L, Pini S, Maggi L, Rucci P, Del Debbio A, Carlini M, Baldini A, Ferrari G, Manca E, Beverini E, Amore M, Scarallo V, Semeraro Q, Brunetto M, Bonino F, Maj M Subthreshold mania as predictor of depression during interferon treatment in HCV+ patients without current or lifetime psychiatric disorders. J Psychosom Res. 2007 Feb 28; 62 :349-55 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2006.10.024 PubMed ID: 17324686

    Depression is considered the most frequent interferon (IFN)-alpha-induced psychiatric disorder. However, other neuropsychiatric side effects of IFN treatment, such as irritability, anxiety, and manic episodes, are reported as well. We analyzed the impact of lifetime manic-hypomanic symptoms and anxiety on the development of depression in hepatitis-C-virus-infected subjects treated with two different types of IFN-alpha.

  110. Berrocal C, Ruiz Moreno M, Merchán P, Mansukhani A, Rucci P, Cassano GB The Mood Spectrum Self-Report: validation and adaptation into Spanish. Depress Anxiety. 2006 Mar 22; 23 :220-35 DOI: 10.1002/da.20169 PubMed ID: 16550540

    This study explores the psychometric properties of the Spanish adaptation of the Mood Spectrum Self-Report (MOODS-SR), an instrument designed to assess a broad range of manifestations of mood psychopathology. A total of 71 Spanish subjects participated: 49 outpatients who met criteria for a mood disorder or generalized anxiety disorder, and 22 normal controls. The instrument proved to have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Significant positive correlations were found between the depressive subdomains of the questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory, as well as between the manic-hypomanic subdomains and the Clinician-Administered Rating Scale for Mania. Clinical subjects displayed higher mean scores than normal subjects in all domains, and patients with bipolar disorder displayed higher scores than patients with unipolar disorder in the Manic component, particularly in the Energy and the Cognition subdomains. Differences between patients with generalized anxiety and mood disorders were small. The former, however, did not differ from normal controls in several subdomains, whereas patients with mood disorders did.

  111. Bazzichi L, Maser J, Piccinni A, Rucci P, Del Debbio A, Vivarelli L, Catena M, Bouanani S, Merlini G, Bombardieri S, Dell'Osso L Quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis: impact of disability and lifetime depressive spectrum symptomatology. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.. 2006 Jan 7; 23 :783-8 PubMed ID: 16396695

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of disability and lifetime subthreshold depressive symptoms on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  112. Bizzarri JV, Rucci P, Sbrana A, Gonnelli C, Massei GJ, Ravani L, Girelli M, Dell'osso L, Cassano GB Reasons for substance use and vulnerability factors in patients with substance use disorder and anxiety or mood disorders. Addict Behav. 2006 Jun 27; 32 :384-91 DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.04.005 Epub. 2006 Jun 22 PubMed ID: 16797139

    This cross-sectional study examined the reasons for substance use and the presence of vulnerability factors such as substance sensitivity, sensation seeking, and symptoms related to the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with substance use disorder (SUD) and comorbid mood and anxiety disorders by using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Spectrum of Substance Use (SCI-SUBS), a novel instrument designed to explore the spectrum of substance use and its clinical correlates. Study participants included 61 patients with SUD and mood or anxiety disorder, and two comparison groups including 35 patients with SUD only and 50 controls not in treatment for mental disorders or SUD. We found that patients with co-morbid mood or anxiety disorder had significantly higher scores on the SCI-SUBS domains 'substance sensitivity' and 'self-medication' as compared to those with SUD only. Scores on 'sensation seeking' and 'ADHD' domains were similar between both groups of patients and higher than in controls. Patients with comorbid mood or anxiety disorders showed a higher sensitivity to substances and were more prone to self-medication than those with SUD only. These characteristics should be taken into account in the diagnostic assessment and in long-term treatment to decrease the risk of relapse.

  113. Benvenuti A, Rucci P, Ravani L, Gonnelli C, Frank E, Balestrieri M, Sbrana A, Dell'osso L, Cassano GB Psychotic features in borderline patients: is there a connection to mood dysregulation? Bipolar Disord. 2005 Jul 20; 7 :338-43 DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2005.00217.x PubMed ID: 16026486

    To investigate the relationship between lifetime mood and psychotic spectrum features in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD).

  114. Goracci A, Martinucci M, Scalcione U, Fagiolini A, Castrogiovanni P Quality of life and subthreshold affective symptoms. Qual Life Res. 2005 Jul 19; 14 :905-9 PubMed ID: 16022083

    Although Quality of Life in patients with Mood Disorders has been widely investigated, there are very few studies that examine the relationship between quality of life and subthreshold affective symptoms. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between mood spectrum and subjective quality of life in the general population. A sample of 200 healthy subjects was recruited from the general population. None of the subjects were treated with psychotropic medications or were receiving psychotherapy at the time of the assessments. Subjects were 22-55 years old. The mean age was 33.56 years. Subjects rated themselves on the 'Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire' (Q-LES-Q) and the 'Self-Report Questionnaire for Mood Spectrum' (MOODS-SR). We found a statistically significant correlation between Q-LES-Q total score and MOODS-SR total score (r = -0.43; p < 0.001) and between Q-LES-Q total score and depressive symptoms-related subtotal score of MOODS-SR (r = -0.35; p < 0.001), but not between Q-LES-Q total score and manic symptoms-related subtotal score of MOODS-SR. Our data suggests that subjects who report subthreshold affective symptomatology also report a low degree of enjoyment and satisfaction from life. The depressive aspects of the mood spectrum seem to have the greatest negative influence.

  115. Cyranowski JM, Frank E, Shear MK, Swartz H, Fagiolini A, Scott J, Kupfer DJ Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression with panic spectrum symptoms: a pilot study. Depress Anxiety. 2005 Jun 21; 21 :140-2 DOI: 10.1002/da.20069 PubMed ID: 15965998

    Patients whose depression is complicated by a lifetime history of panic symptoms display a poorer treatment response to both psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic interventions. A newly adapted psychosocial treatment for depression with lifetime panic spectrum symptoms was evaluated in an open pilot study.

  116. Balestrieri M, Rucci P, Sbrana A, Ravani L, Benvenuti A, Gonnelli C, Dell'osso L, Cassano GB Lifetime rhythmicity and mania as correlates of suicidal ideation and attempts in mood disorders. Compr Psychiatry. 2006 Aug 15; 47 :334-41 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2006.01.004 Epub. 2006 Apr 21 PubMed ID: 16905394

    The aim of this study is to establish to what degree variation in lifetime experience of rhythmicity and manic-hypomanic features correlates with suicidality in individuals with mood disorders and other major psychiatric diagnoses and in a comparison group of controls.

  117. Fagiolini A, Kupfer DJ, Masalehdan A, Scott JA, Houck PR, Frank E Functional impairment in the remission phase of bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2005 May 19; 7 :281-5 DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2005.00207.x PubMed ID: 15898966

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate functional impairment in a group of patients with bipolar disorder in remission and to determine the extent of relationships between overall functioning and current depressive, manic and panic spectrum symptoms.

  118. Berrocal C, Ruiz Moreno MA, Montero M, Rando MA, Rucci P, Cassano GB Social anxiety and obsessive-compulsive spectra: validation of the SHY-SR and the OBS-SR among the Spanish population. Psychiatry Res. 2006 May 16; 142 :241-51 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2005.07.025 Epub. 2006 May 12 PubMed ID: 16697470

    The study focuses on the adaptation into Spanish and on the validation of the Social Phobia Spectrum Self-Report (SHY-SR) and the Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Self-Report (OBS-SR). The questionnaires were designed to measure a broad range of subtle and atypical features related to social anxiety and obsessive-compulsive phenomenology, respectively. Sixty-two outpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for social phobia (SP, n = 20), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, n = 22) and major depression (MD, n = 20), and 25 non-clinical subjects participated. The spectra questionnaires were administered along with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and the Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory. The instruments proved to have satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Convergent validity with other instruments was excellent for the SHY-SR and moderate for the OBS-SR. Both questionnaires were able to detect differences between patients with the disorder of interest (SP in the case of the SHY-SR scores and OCD in the case of the OBS-SR scores) and either normal controls or patients with MD. Receiver-Operating Characteristic Curve analyses were conducted to determine cut-off values in the Spanish versions of the questionnaires denoting the presence of significant SP and OCD symptomatology. Are the questionnaires available on the website?

  119. Zoccali R, Bruno A, Muscatello MR, La Torre D, Paterniti A, Corica F, Damiano MC, Di Rosa AE, Meduri M Panic-agoraphobic spectrum in obese binge eaters. Eat Weight Disord. 2005 Apr 23; 9 :264-8 PubMed ID: 15844398

    This study investigated the frequency of the panic-agoraphobic spectrum symptoms in a sample of obese subjects affected by Binge Eating Disorder (BED) vs controls.

  120. Sbrana A, Bizzarri JV, Rucci P, Gonnelli C, Doria MR, Spagnolli S, Ravani L, Raimondi F, Dell'Osso L, Cassano GB The spectrum of substance use in mood and anxiety disorders. Compr Psychiatry. 2005 Feb 17; 46 :6-13 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2004.07.017 PubMed ID: 15714188

    This study evaluates the prevalence of threshold and subthreshold use of substances among patients with psychiatric disorders and 2 comparison groups. Participants were outpatients and inpatients with mood and anxiety disorders, subjects with opiate dependence, and a comparison group of individuals not undergoing treatment for psychiatric disorders. Assessments included the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition , Axis I Disorders, an interview exploring the spectrum of substance use (Structured Clinical Interview for the Spectrum of Substance Use), and a self-report instrument exploring the spectrum of 5 psychiatric disorders (General 5-Spectrum Measure). The overall frequency of substance use disorder (SUD) and that of subthreshold use were 46% and 8% in patients with bipolar disorder, 4% and 26% in those with panic disorder, 8% and 26% in those with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 6% and 10% in the control group, respectively ( Idouble dagger 2 = 51.6, P < .001). Inspection of standardized residuals indicated that alcohol use disorder and SUD were significantly ( P < .05) more frequent in subjects with bipolar disorder than among those with obsessive-compulsive disorder or panic disorder. The latter showed a significantly higher subthreshold use of substances than control subjects. The pattern of motivations for use varied according to the psychiatric disorder. Our results suggest that the well-established relationship between SUDs and psychiatric disorders might be the end point of a process that starts from increased proneness to substance use, which first leads to self-medication and then may eventually develop into substance abuse or dependence, among subjects with psychiatric symptoms.

  121. Berrocal C, Ruiz Moreno MA, Gil Villa M, Hermoso P, Rucci P, Cassano GB Multidimensional assessment of the Panic-Agoraphobic Spectrum: reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the PAS-SR. J Anxiety Disord. 2005 Aug 27; 20 :562-79 DOI: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2005.07.003 Epub. 2005 Aug 24 PubMed ID: 16122902

    The present study reports on the psychometric properties of the adaptation into Spanish of the Panic-Agoraphobic Spectrum Self-Report (PAS-SR). Drawing on a dimensional and longitudinal perspective of psychopathology, the PAS-SR was designed to measure a wide array of lifetime Panic-Agoraphobic features. Participants included outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of panic disorder (n=26) or major depression (n=28), and a normal control group (n=41). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were excellent for the total score, and moderate to excellent for most domains. Significant and high correlations between PAS-SR scores and instruments measuring similar constructs indicated good concurrent validity. The findings support the discriminant validity of the questionnaire. Patients with a diagnosis of panic disorder attained higher scores than normal controls on all domains, and displayed higher scores than patients with major depression on five of the eight domains.

  122. Piccinni A, Maser JD, Bazzichi L, Rucci P, Vivarelli L, Del Debbio A, Catena M, Bombardieri S, Dell'Osso L Clinical significance of lifetime mood and panic-agoraphobic spectrum symptoms on quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Compr Psychiatry. 2006 Apr 26; 47 :201-8 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2005.08.002 PubMed ID: 16635649

    Previous studies suggested that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with depressive and anxiety symptomatology. The well-being and functioning of patients with RA may be significantly influenced by subthreshold psychiatric comorbidity. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with RA, compared with the Italian norms and patients with diabetes, was assessed by the influence of lifetime mood and panic-agoraphobic spectrum symptoms and demographic and clinical variables.

  123. Frank E, Shear MK, Rucci P, Banti S, Mauri M, Maser JD, Kupfer DJ, Miniati M, Fagiolini A, Cassano GB Cross-cultural validity of the structured clinical interview for panic-agoraphobic spectrum. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2005 Apr 19; 40 :283-90 DOI: 10.1007/s00127-005-0893-2 PubMed ID: 15834779

    We sought to develop a series of assessment measures of psychiatric spectrum conditions associated with major DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders that might capture the true phenotypes underlying these disorders. The specific objective of this report was to describe the methods we employed to create instruments that could cross linguistic and national boundaries and to evaluate the comparability of results obtained when one of these instruments, the Structured Clinical Interview for Panic-Agoraphobic Spectrum (SCI-PAS), was administered in the United States and in Italy.

  124. Manfredini D, Bandettini di Poggio A, Cantini E, Dell'Osso L, Bosco M Mood and anxiety psychopathology and temporomandibular disorder: a spectrum approach. J Oral Rehabil. 2004 Sep 25; 31 :933-40 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2004.01335.x PubMed ID: 15387831

    Psychological factors play an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), as demonstrated by an increase in stress, anxiety, depression and somatization in TMD patients. The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of mood and panic-agoraphobic symptoms in different groups of TMD patients by means of a spectrum approach to psychopathology. A total of 131 subjects were included in this study and TMD signs and symptoms were investigated by means of a standardized clinical examination. Two self-report questionnaires were used to evaluate mood (MOODS-SR) and panic-agoraphobic (PAS-SR) spectrum. anova and Bonferroni's post hoc test for multiple comparisons were used to compare mean scores of all TMD groups for MOODS-SR, PAS-SR and all their domains. Results revealed a significantly higher prevalence of both mood (P < 0.001) and panic-agoraphobic (P < 0.01) symptoms in myofascial pain patients than in all other diagnostic groups (TMD-free, disc displacement and joint disorders). With regard to mood spectrum, strong differences emerged for all domains evaluating depressive symptoms. As for the panic-agoraphobic spectrum, myofascial pain patients differed from the other groups for the presence of stress sensitivity, panic, separation anxiety, hypochondriac and agoraphobic symptoms. It was concluded that myofascial pain patients differed from those with disc displacement, joint disorders and no TMD in relation to some psychopathological symptoms, while the last three groups presented very similar profiles.

  125. Manfredini D, Landi N, Romagnoli M, Bosco M Psychic and occlusal factors in bruxers. Aust Dent J. 2004 Aug 6; 49 :84-9 PubMed ID: 15293819

    The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of associations between bruxism and psychic and occlusal factors.

  126. Manfredini D, Ciapparelli A, Dell'Osso L, Bosco M Mood disorders in subjects with bruxing behavior. J Dent. 2005 Jun 7; 33 :485-90 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2004.11.010 Epub. 2005 Feb 16 PubMed ID: 15935268

    An investigation was conducted on 105 subjects to assess the existence of an association between mood psychopathology and bruxism.

  127. Cassano GB, Rucci P, Frank E, Fagiolini A, Dell'Osso L, Shear MK, Kupfer DJ The mood spectrum in unipolar and bipolar disorder: arguments for a unitary approach. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Jul 2; 161 :1264-9 DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.161.7.1264 PubMed ID: 15229060

    This study examined the extent to which individuals with a lifetime diagnosis of recurrent unipolar disorder endorse experiencing manic/hypomanic symptoms over their lifetimes and compared their reports with those of patients with bipolar I disorder.

  128. Sbrana A, Dell'Osso L, Benvenuti A, Rucci P, Cassano P, Banti S, Gonnelli C, Doria MR, Ravani L, Spagnolli S, Rossi L, Raimondi F, Catena M, Endicott J, Frank E, Kupfer DJ, Cassano GB The psychotic spectrum: validity and reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Psychotic Spectrum. Schizophr. Res.. 2005 May 12; 75 :375-87 DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2004.09.016 PubMed ID: 15885528

    This study evaluates the validity and the reliability of a new instrument developed to assess the psychotic spectrum: the Structured Clinical Interview for the Psychotic Spectrum (SCI-PSY). The instrument is based on a spectrum model that emphasizes soft signs, low-grade symptoms, subthreshold syndromes, as well as temperamental and personality traits comprising the clinical and subsyndromal psychotic manifestations. The items of the interview include, in addition to a subset of the DSM-IV criteria for psychotic syndromes, a number of features derived from clinical experience and from a review of the phenomenological descriptions of psychoses. Study participants were enrolled at 11 Italian Departments of Psychiatry located at 9 sites and included 77 consecutive patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 66 with borderline personality disorder, 59 with psychotic mood disorders, 98 with non-psychotic mood disorders and 57 with panic disorder. A comparison group of 102 unselected controls was enrolled at the same sites. The SCI-PSY significantly discriminated subjects with any psychiatric diagnosis from controls and subjects with from those without psychotic disorders. The hypothesized structure of the instrument was confirmed empirically.

  129. Rucci P, Frank E, Fagiolini A, Kupfer DJ, Shear MK, Dell'Osso L, Banti S, Mauri M, Grochocinski VJ, Maser JD, Endicott J, Cassano GB Development and preliminary testing of the General 5-Spectrum Measure (GSM-V). Depress Anxiety. 2003 Nov 20; 18 :109-17 DOI: 10.1002/da.10123 PubMed ID: 14625875

    The Collaborative Spectrum Project has developed structured interviews and self-report instruments to assess the spectrum of symptomatology related to panic-agoraphobia, mood, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive and eating disorders. In order to obtain a rapid pre-test on all five of these spectrum conditions, the authors sought to develop a brief instrument that would tap these conditions. This paper reports on 1) the procedures to derive this composite instrument, the General 5-Spectrum Measure (GSM-V), by selecting items from five existing spectrum instruments, and 2) preliminary testing of the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the GSM-V. The GSM-V consists of 54 items grouped into scales that explore the five spectra described above. It was derived from existing data on five Structured Clinical Interviews that were designed to assess spectrum features by using multiple regression models. The GSM-V was administered as a stand-alone instrument along with the self-report versions of the spectrum interviews to a sample of 56 psychiatric patients in order to determine the internal consistency of its scales and the correlation with the parent spectrum measures. Moreover, to determine whether subjects would respond consistently to the same items on two different occasions (test-retest reliability), the GSM-V was re-administered within 1 month from the baseline. From each of the five spectrum interviews, items were selected that accounted for a significant proportion of variance of the total score of the parent instrument. The five sets of items so selected constitute separate scales. The scales of the GSM-V had a good to excellent internal consistency, excellent test-retest reliability, and proved to reproduce adequately the long-form measures. The GSM-V appears to provide a reliable alternative to the five longer spectrum interviews. It is envisaged that the instrument will be most useful as a pre-test to identify subjects with spectrum features that should be explored in greater detail. Additionally, it could provide a better characterization of patients with a syndromal level Axis-I disorder, who might require specific treatment strategies targeted to co-occurring subsyndromal conditions.

  130. Sbrana A, Dell'Osso L, Gonnelli C, Impagnatiello P, Doria MR, Spagnolli S, Ravani L, Cassano GB, Frank E, Shear MK, Grochocinski VJ, Rucci P, Maser JD, Endicott J Acceptability, validity and reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Spectrum of Substance Use (SCI-SUBS): a pilot study. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2003 Jun 28; 12 :105-15 PubMed ID: 12830304

    This paper reports on the acceptability, reliability and validity of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Spectrum of Substance Use (SCI-SUBS), a new instrument exploring the interactive pathway between substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric outpatients with (n = 21) and without (n = 32) substance abuse comorbidity according to the DSM-IV, non-psychiatric subjects with opioid dependence (OD, n = 14) and normal controls (n = 33) were assessed with the SCI-SUBS. The presence or absence of psychiatric disorders was determined with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV (SCID). The SCI-SUBS was well accepted by participants. The internal consistency of the domains was satisfactory (between 0.64 and 0.93). Domain scores of OD subjects were significantly higher than those of controls and of psychiatric patients without substance abuse. The cut-off point on the SCI-SUBS total score at which there was optimal discrimination between the presence and the absence of a DSM-IV diagnosis of substance abuse was 45. The pilot version of the SCI-SUBS has satisfactory internal consistency and construct validity.

  131. Marazziti D, Rucci P, Di Nasso E, Masala I, Baroni S, Rossi A, Giannaccini G, Mengali F, Lucacchini A Jealousy and subthreshold psychopathology: a serotonergic link. Neuropsychobiology. 2003 Feb 28; 47 :12-6 DOI: 10.1159/000068869 PubMed ID: 12606839

    A few studies suggest that different neurotransmitters may play a role in the expression of jealousy. Our study aimed to explore the serotonergic system by means of the specific binding of (3)H-paroxetine ((3)H-Par) to platelet membranes of healthy subjects with and without excessive jealousy concerns, according to a specific self-administered questionnaire [Questionnaire for affective relationships (QAR)].

  132. Cassano GB, Frank E, Miniati M, Rucci P, Fagiolini A, Pini S, Shear MK, Maser JD Conceptual underpinnings and empirical support for the mood spectrum. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am.. 2002 Dec 5; 25 :699-712, v PubMed ID: 12462856

    This article presents an overview of the conceptual basis and empirical support for a unitary view of mood disturbance. The authors consider this general conceptualization of psychiatric disturbance as consisting of an array of related symptoms and behavioral features that define the "spectrum" of each disorder. They discuss how this conceptual framework aids in overcoming what they believe to be the false dichotomy between unipolar and bipolar mood disorders and in evaluating subthreshold and unusual presentations. They also describe the structured clinical interview and self-report instrument that they have developed to facilitate systematic assessment of the proposed mood spectrum. Finally, they summarize the clinical utility of such an approach to the description and assessment of patients with mood disorders.

  133. Shear MK, Cassano GB, Frank E, Rucci P, Rotondo A, Fagiolini A The panic-agoraphobic spectrum: development, description, and clinical significance. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am.. 2002 Dec 5; 25 :739-56 PubMed ID: 12462858

    The results of the authors' research efforts to date support the idea that the panic-agoraphobic spectrum is a robust and culturally transferable construct with important clinical implications for patients with mood and anxiety disorders. In particular, their findings suggest the need for alternate treatment strategies to treat mood patients with comorbid panic features [50,52]. They maintain that the spectrum approach could add to the knowledge of course and outcome of mood and anxiety disorders and inform treatment decisions. The spectrum concept has other potential implications. For the purposes of neurobiologic research, reliable identification of phenotypes that map [Figure 3: see text] onto specific brain processes in crucial. The definition of the diathesis phenotype is also important if we are to elucidate the cause and pathophysiology of mental disorders at a molecular level. A panic-agoraphobic spectrum assessment incorporate temperamental features and trait-like manifestations into a comprehensive symptom assessment to provide a detailed picture of the clinical features of PD. Such an approach holds some promise for progress in studies of neurobiologic basis of panic and may be useful in further efforts to overcome the nagging problem of the ambiguous boundaries of DSM diagnostic categories [53].

  134. Dell'Osso L, Rucci P, Ducci F, Ciapparelli A, Vivarelli L, Carlini M, Ramacciotti C, Cassano GB Social anxiety spectrum. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004 Jan 10; 253 :286-91 DOI: 10.1007/s00406-003-0442-5 PubMed ID: 14714117

    The aim of this paper is to provide the prevalence rates of mild, moderate and severe symptoms of social anxiety in a sample of high school students and to analyze gender differences and associated impairment levels within these three levels of severity. Five hundred and twenty students were assessed with the Social Anxiety Spectrum Self-Report (SHY-SR), a questionnaire that explores social anxiety spectrum. By applying two cut-off scores determined on a separate sample by using ROC analysis, the large majority (73.3 %) of subjects were classified as low scorers, 9% as medium scorers and 17.7% as high scorers. Fears related to social situations were reported both by high and medium scorers. Functional impairment defined by avoidance and school difficulties was more common among high scorers, but it was also reported to a significant extent by medium scorers. Compared to low and medium scorers, high scorers showed a higher F/M ratio (about 4:1) and a more homogeneous symptomatological profile in the two genders. In conclusion, our report confirms, in line with the literature, that even moderate levels of social anxiety are associated with significant functional impairment and distress for the individuals.

  135. Frank E, Cyranowski JM, Rucci P, Shear MK, Fagiolini A, Thase ME, Cassano GB, Grochocinski VJ, Kostelnik B, Kupfer DJ Clinical significance of lifetime panic spectrum symptoms in the treatment of patients with bipolar I disorder. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 2002 Oct 9; 59 :905-11 PubMed ID: 12365877

    Given the observed association between panic disorder and bipolar disorder and the potential negative influence of panic symptoms on the course of bipolar illness, we were interested in the effects of what we have defined as "panic spectrum" conditions on the clinical course and treatment outcome in patients with bipolar I (BPI) disorder. We hypothesized that lifetime panic spectrum features would be associated with higher levels of suicidal ideation and a poorer response to acute treatment of the index mood episode in this patient population.

  136. Mauri M, Borri C, Banti S, Baldassari S, Rucci P, Cassano GB. The anorexic-bulimic spectrum in patients with eating disorders, mood disorders and controls. Giorn Ital Psicopatol. June 2002; Vol. 8 :Issue 2
  137. Dell'Osso L, Saettoni M, Papasogli A, Rucci P, Ciapparelli A, Di Poggio AB, Ducci F, Hardoy C, Cassano GB Social anxiety spectrum: gender differences in Italian high school students. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.. 2002 Apr 18; 190 :225-32 PubMed ID: 11960083

    Gender differences in the social anxiety spectrum and their correlation with other psychopathological features were analyzed in 520 students by using two questionnaires: the Social Anxiety Spectrum Self-Report (SHY-SR), which explores social anxiety spectrum, and the General Spectrum Measure (GSM), which explores panic-agoraphobia, mood, obsessive-compulsive, and eating-behavior features. Mean SHY-SR total score was significantly higher in women than in men, and gender differences were particularly pronounced for interpersonal sensitivity domain. Likewise, GSM scores were higher in women, except for the manic section. The SHY-SR domains correlated significantly with all GSM sections, except for the manic section. In conclusion, women reported more symptoms than men (who belonged to different psychopathologic dimensions) and displayed a profile of social anxiety spectrum that differs quantitatively but not qualitatively from the men's profile. The correlation between social anxiety spectrum and other psychopathological features mirrors previous findings concerning the high comorbidity of axis-I social anxiety disorder.

  138. Dell'Osso L, Rucci P, Cassano GB, Maser JD, Endicott J, Shear MK, Sarno N, Saettoni M, Grochocinski VJ, Frank E Measuring social anxiety and obsessive-compulsive spectra: comparison of interviews and self-report instruments. Compr Psychiatry. 2002 Mar 15; 43 :81-7 PubMed ID: 11893984

    The present report analyzes the agreement between the interview and the self-report formats of the instruments Structured Clinical Interview for Social Anxiety Spectrum (SCI-SHY) and Structured Clinical Interview for Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum (SCI-OBS), already validated, in three psychiatric patient samples and controls. Thirty patients (10 with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], 10 with social anxiety disorder [SAD], 10 with recurrent unipolar depression in remission) and 20 control subjects (10 university students, 10 ophthalmologic patients) were assessed using the SCI-SHY, the SCI-OBS, and the self report version of the two instruments. Agreement between the two versions was very good for the seven SCI-OBS domains (with intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] ranging from 0.80 to 0.96) and the four SCI-SHY domains (ICCs from 0.74 to 0.90). When items were analyzed individually, subjects tended to under-report some phobia-related problems in the interview. The total number of items endorsed in the SCI-SHY, but not in the SCI-OBS, was affected by the order of administration: when the SCI-SHY interview was administered first, subjects reported a median of five more symptoms; when the self-report was administered first, there was no significant difference in the number of symptoms endorsed in the two formats. However, this difference is not clinically important, given the large number of items comprising the instruments, and might be explained by the fact that subjects are likely to overemphasize occasional symptoms or behaviors when they are asked by the interviewer to answer a long series of "new" questions as accurately as possible. Given the high agreement between domain scores in the two formats of the instruments and the fact that scores are virtually identical when the self-report is administered first, we recommend the use of the self-report versions in clinical and research settings.

  139. Dell'Osso L, Armani A, Rucci P, Frank E, Fagiolini A, Corretti G, Shear MK, Grochocinski VJ, Maser JD, Endicott J, Cassano GB Measuring mood spectrum: comparison of interview (SCI-MOODS) and self-report (MOODS-SR) instruments. Compr Psychiatry. 2002 Jan 15; 43 :69-73 PubMed ID: 11788923

    Spectrum phenomena include, in addition to the typical DSM core symptoms, isolated or atypical symptoms, often of low severity, as well as trait-like behavioral features that arise as a result of coping with the psychopathology. We have demonstrated the psychometric properties of five Structured Clinical Interviews for the assessment of specific mood and anxiety spectrum conditions, including the Structured Clinical Interview for Mood Spectrum (SCI-MOODS). The present report describes the reliability of the self-report version (MOODS-SR) of the SCI-MOODS in a sample of 21 patients with a mood disorder and 20 control subjects. Agreement between the self-report and the interview formats was substantial. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) ranged from 0.88 to 0.97. Our findings provide support for the reliability of the MOODS-SR questionnaire.

  140. Cyranowski JM, Shear MK, Rucci P, Fagiolini A, Frank E, Grochocinski VJ, Kupfer DJ, Banti S, Armani A, Cassano G Adult separation anxiety: psychometric properties of a new structured clinical interview. J Psychiatr Res. 2002 Jan 5; 36 :77-86 PubMed ID: 11777496

    Separation anxiety has traditionally been characterized and assessed as a disorder that is unique to childhood. Yet the core symptoms of separation anxiety, i.e. excessive and often disabling distress when faced with actual or perceived separation from major attachment figures, may persist or even arise during adulthood. We report on the psychometric properties of a new structured clinical interview designed to assess symptoms of separation anxiety as experienced both during childhood and adulthood. This instrument, called the Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms (or SCI-SAS), was administered as part of an assessment battery to 91 adult psychiatric outpatients and 20 non-psychiatric controls. Results indicate that this instrument displays excellent psychometric properties, including good internal consistency, a clear factor structure, and exceptional levels of convergent and discriminate validity. These results highlight the feasibility and potential clinical utility of assessing age-appropriate symptoms of separation anxiety experienced during adulthood.

  141. Shear MK, Frank E, Rucci P, Fagiolini DA, Grochocinski VJ, Houck P, Cassano GB, Kupfer DJ, Endicott J, Maser JD, Mauri M, Banti S Panic-agoraphobic spectrum: reliability and validity of assessment instruments. J Psychiatr Res. 2001 Apr 5; 35 :59-66 PubMed ID: 11287057

    DSM IV is a simple, reliable diagnostic system with many advantages. However, DSM diagnostic criteria may not provide sufficient characterization of clinically significant symptoms. We have undertaken a project to assess an array (spectrum) of clinical features associated with different DSM Disorders. The purpose of this paper is to report on reliability of assessment instruments for Panic-Agoraphobic Spectrum (PAS), to document convergent validity of PAS symptom groupings, and to confirm the relationship between PAS and DSM IV Panic Disorder (PD). We studied 22 normal controls and 95 outpatients who met criteria for Panic Disorder with and without lifetime Major Depression, and Major Depression or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder without lifetime Panic Disorder. Assessment instruments had excellent reliability and there was good concordance between interview and self-report formats. PAS scores were highest in subjects with PD, followed by outpatients without PD, and were lowest in normal controls. PAS scores varied among PD patients, and a subgroup of patients without PD scored high on PAS. We conclude that PAS can be reliably assessed, and that it describes a valid, coherent constellation of features associated with DSM IV Panic Disorder, but providing additional important clinical information.

  142. Rucci P, Maser JD Instrument development in the Italy-USA Collaborative Spectrum Project. Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc. 2001 Mar 21; 9 :249-56 PubMed ID: 11256057

    The Collaborative Spectrum Project aims to define subthreshold and atyical conditions not sufficiently characterized in the current diagnostic nomenclature and for which adequate assessment instruments are not available. This paper reports on the development and validation of new instruments to assess the spectrum of five psychiatric disorders.

  143. Frank E, Shear MK, Rucci P, Cyranowski JM, Endicott J, Fagiolini A, Grochocinski VJ, Houck P, Kupfer DJ, Maser JD, Cassano GB Influence of panic-agoraphobic spectrum symptoms on treatment response in patients with recurrent major depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2000 Jun 30; 157 :1101-7 DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.157.7.1101 PubMed ID: 10873918

    The authors tested the hypothesis that a lifetime history of panic-agoraphobic spectrum symptoms predicts a poorer response to depression treatment.

  144. Cassano GB, Dell'Osso L, Frank E, Miniati M, Fagiolini A, Shear K, Pini S, Maser J The bipolar spectrum: a clinical reality in search of diagnostic criteria and an assessment methodology. J Affect Disord. 1999 Sep 1; 54 :319-28 PubMed ID: 10467978

    Failure to recognize subthreshold expressions of mania contributes to the frequent under-diagnosis of bipolar disorder. There are several reasons for the lower rate of recognition of subthreshold manic symptoms, when compared to the analogous pure depressive ones. These include the lack of subjective suffering, enhanced productivity, ego-syntonicity, and diurnal and seasonal rhythmicity associated with many of the manic and hypomanic symptoms, and the psychiatrists' tendency to subsume persistent or even alternating symptoms among personality disorders. Furthermore, the central diagnostic importance placed on alterations in mood distracts clinicians from paying attention to other more subtle but clinically meaningful symptoms, such as changes in energy, neurovegetative symptoms and distorted cognitions. Although officially accepted in both ICD-10 and DSM-IV, we believe bipolar II disorder is underdiagnosed because of inattention to symptoms of hypomania. Moreover, by requiring the presence of both full-blown hypomanic and major depressive episodes, current nosology fails to include symptoms or signs which are mild and do not meet threshold criteria. There is already agreement in the field that such symptoms are important for depression. We now propose that attention should also be devoted to mild symptomatic manifestations of a manic diathesis, even if such manifestations may sometimes enhance quality of life. The term 'spectrum' is used to refer to the broad range of such manifestations of a disorder from core symptoms to temperamental traits. Spectrum manifestations may be present during, between, or even in the absence of, an episode of full-blown disorder. We have developed a structured clinical interview to assess the mood spectrum (SCI-MOODS) to evaluate the whole range of depressive and manic symptoms. This instrument is currently undergoing psychometric testing procedures. Similar to the SCID interview, the SCI-MOODS interview provides a separate rating for each of the major DSM-IV symptoms, but the latter also identifies and rates subthreshold and atypical manifestations. This paper presents the concept of a subthreshold bipolar disorder and discusses the potential epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic relevance of such a spectrum conditions. We also describe the SCI-MOODS interview used reliably to identify the occurrence of a bipolar spectrum condition. Obviously a great deal of systematic research needs to be conducted to ascertain the reliability and validity of subthreshold bipolarity as summarized in this paper and embodied in our instrument.

  145. Frank E, Cassano G.B., Shear M.K., Rotondo A., Dell'Osso L., Mauri M., Maser J.D. and Grochocinski V. The Spectrum Model: A More Coherent Approach to the Complexity of Psychiatric Symptomatology. CNS Spectrums April 1998; Volume 3 / Issue 04 :pp 23-34
  146. Cassano G.B., Rotondo A., Maser J.D., Shear M.K., Frank E., Mauri M., and Dell'Osso L. The Panic-Agoraphobic Spectrum: Rationale, Assessment, and Clinical Usefulness. CNS Spectrums April 1998; Volume 3 / Issue 04 :pp 35-48
  147. Pini S, Maser J.D., Dell'Osso L. and Cassano G.B. Origins of the Panic-Agoraphobic Spectrum and Its Implications for Comorbidity. CNS Spectrums April 1998; Volume 3 / Issue 04 :pp 49-57
  148. Miniati M., Mauri M., Dell'Osso L., Pini S., Mengali F., Shear M.K., Maser J.D., Grochocinski V., Frank E., and Cassano G.B. Panic -Agoraphobic Spectrum and Cardiovascular Disease. CNS Spectrums April 1998; Volume 3 / Issue 04 :pp 58-62
  149. Fagiolini A., Shear M.K., Cassano G.B., Frank E. Is Lifetime Separation Anxiety a Manifestation of Panic Spectrum? CNS Spectrums April 1998; Volume 3 / Issue 04 :pp 63-72
  150. Cassano GB, Michelini S, Shear MK, Coli E, Maser JD, Frank E The panic-agoraphobic spectrum: a descriptive approach to the assessment and treatment of subtle symptoms. Am J Psychiatry. 1997 Jun 1; 154 :27-38 DOI: 10.1176/ajp.154.6.27 PubMed ID: 9167542

    Psychiatric classification is still a topic of considerable discussion and debate in spite of major advances in the past two decades. The debate involves categorical versus dimensional approaches, cutoff numbers of symptoms to define a case, degree of impairment, objective diagnostic criteria versus more theoretically based criteria, episodic versus trait-like symptoms, and the role of atypical and subclinical symptoms. All of these issues have been raised for the anxiety disorders and depression. This article presents the conceptualization of a relatively novel and testable approach to the diagnosis and classification of panic and agoraphobia, the panic-agoraphobic spectrum, and pilot data on a new questionnaire to assess it.